Organic Farming Manual

Miracle Farm Blueprint

Miracle Farm Blueprint is a step by step guide for the small-scale farming whose major aim of facilitating individuals in their attempts to have sufficient water supply and pure organic foods. It is a product of Michael, a guy only known by one name. The author teaches the best way of structuring a mini-farm though efficient. The farm will be self-sufficient, something that can help individuals along with their families to manage unforeseen circumstances such as disasters or any kind of emergency. Following this guide will help save thousands of dollars that would otherwise be incurred on groceries. Additionally, it will help you come up with a survival mechanism. The author is of the opinion that the blueprint the program is kind of a miracle and probably the best than any other one in the market. The program is easy and applicable to all individuals. Besides, you will only be required to have simple tools, apart from a reduced total expenditure. Thousands of individuals reap maximum benefits every day. All you need to do is to give it a try and be among them. More here...

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Organic Agriculture

Spinosad has become a major component in organic agricultural production few other insect pest management agents recognized as suitable for organic agriculture provide a comparable level of control and reliability. To date, spinosad as an active ingredient and certain formulations containing spinosad, have received organic certification from a variety of government and private organizations in 18 countries, including the USA, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Australia and Spain and from the European Union. In the US, organic certifications for spinosad include technical spinosad (USDA National Organic Standards Board), and several formulated products containing spinosad, including Entrust , GF-120 NF Fruit Fly Bait, Conserve Justice Fire Ant Bait and a 5 suspension concentrate formulation for home and garden use (Organic Materials Review Institute, OMRI).136 In 2009, spinosad was approved for the European Union Positive Organic List by the EU Organic Standing Committee.

Disposal and Releases into the Environment

The releases of phthalates to the environment are discussed in the chapter on Multimedia Modeling. Very little phthalate ester is released to the environment during the manufacturing process.Very little is released into the air. Essentially all of the phthalate released during production and processing is disposed of in wastewater that is treated in wastewater treatment plants where it is either biode-graded or adsorbed to sludge with very little going to air. The fate of phthalates during wastewater treatment is covered in more detail in the chapter on Environmental Degradation. Phthalate adsorbed to sewage sludge is usually either incinerated or landfilled in the United States. In some countries, application of sewage sludge to agricultural land is also common. The latter two disposal routes will result in some release of phthalates to soil. Degradation and fate of phthalates in soil is also treated in subsequent chapters. Poorly operating incinerators may also lead to some...

Soils and Plant Nutrition

Without using very large quantities of fertilizers, it would not be possible to maintain agricultural production at the levels that are currently required. Because of this, Europe, America, and Japan have been using fertilizers for a long time. In Japan, roughly half of the plant food comes from bulky organic manures and half from fertilizers. Most of their straw is used to prepare manures and composts, and the Japanese have one of the highest consumptions of fertilizers per unit area of arable land. Bulky organic manures are also a major source of plant food in Europe and America. All practicable measures should be adopted to increase their supply in India too, but fertilizers are required to supplement them. Farmyard manure and composts have their virtues, but we cannot afford to make a fetish of them.

Public Perceptions Of Biotechnology

Another issue of relevance to the US marine biotechnology industry is public perception of the industry and its products. To date, much public interaction with biotechnology has taken place in a negative context. The most notable clashes between the public and the biotechnology industry have involved concerns voiced regarding field testing of genetically engineered microbial pesticides, levels of bovine growth hormone in dairy products, and genetically engineered agricultural products. It may be, however, that these concerns arose from perceived levels of risk resulting from a lack of scientific understanding or from inadequate communication between the industry and the public sector (Fleising 1991).

Use of Compost to Overcome Abiotic Water Salt and pH Stress

In addition, authors also did an attempt and used microbiologically rich compost (JNMsC and TERI-5) to minimize abiotic stress. Both types of composts were prepared in combination with Jatropha press cakes. Jatropha press cake cannot be used in animal feed because of its toxic properties, but they are valuable as organic manure due to their high nitrogen content, which is similar to that of seed cake from castor bean and chicken manure. The nitrogen content ranges from 3.2 to 3.8 , depending on the source. Tender branches and leaves are used as a green manure for coconut trees. All plant parts can be used as a green manure. Extracts from different parts of Jatropha curcas show molluscicidal and insecticidal properties. The seed oil, extracts of Jatropha seeds, and phorbol esters from the oil have been used to control various pests, in many cases, successful results. There is a need for research in the utilization of this biopesticidal and manurial property of pressed cakes by...

Mobilization of Metals by Atmospheric Fluxes

In this part, we refer only to mobilization form solid wastes and particles that were already deposited, neglecting the patterns of metals' spreading from the chimney of smelters as dependent on the types of particles. Although the dispersal from solid wastes may be minor compared to the dispersal by hydrological fluxes from a flux quantification point of view, it has consequences for human health in mining areas (Bradshaw and Chadwick 1980 McDonald et al. 1980 Borgegard and Rydin 1989). Contaminated soils in mining areas can be a more important source of contaminated dust (for instance with Pb) than the solid wastes (Murgueytio et al. 1980). Interestingly, a source of contaminated dust can be also the floodplains of arid river systems (Taylor and Hudson-Edwards 2008). For a review of the medical geochemistry of dusts (influence of mineral type, crystal morphology, grain size, degree of encapsulation, and trace element content on bioaccessibility), see Plumlee and Ziegler (2007)....

Introduction Solutions for What

Some of the initial responses for achieving such high objectives include the Circular Economy (China) and the Recycling Economy (Germany and Japan), eco-industrial parks and networks, closed-loop and energy generating apartment and office complexes, and sustainable agriculture. All major economic sectors have a role to play in achieving the required gains in efficiency, not just heavy industry. These include land use planning and development transportation, design and construction of the

Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environment

In fact organic farmers do use some pesticides these derive from natural sources and include the insecticidal bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, and botanically derived substances such as tree and plant oils, including pyrethrins. Pyrethrins are highly toxic to fish, and in high doses cause tumours in rats. Synthetic pesticides also pose acute toxicity risks if abused, and in the US each year about 67,000 pesticide poisonings, resulting in an estimated 27 accidental fatalities, are reported.3

Potential Raw Materials

Sources 7 , and the US Department of Energy has performed a thorough evaluation of likely high-value biological chemicals 5 . The key findings of these two research programs are shown in Table 3.1. Direct use of agricultural products as raw materials is rare. The majority of the chemical building blocks identified by these projects are derived from agricultural products using either chemical processes or microbial fermentation. Consequently, the primary raw materials required from agriculture are starch, sugars, and oils. These generic substances can then be used to manufacture a wide variety of more useful chemical products. In some cases, multiple products may be produced from a single agricultural feedstock. For example, glycerol is a by-product of the transesterification of plant oils during biodiesel production.

Increasing Production

Water availability is an important determinant of crop production. Irrigation has been used extensively throughout human history to improve agricultural output and to allow production in less favorable conditions. Freshwater is a finite resource and accounts for only 3 of the planet' s water. Humans currently appropriate 54 of total runoff, around 70 of which is used for agriculture 12, 13 . Any further increase in irrigation will likely incur environmental impacts as less water is available for natural ecosystems and more water becomes contaminated with fertilizers, pesticides, and other agricultural waste. Use of ancient aquifers to supplement freshwater supplies is unsustainable. Furthermore, long-term irrigation can lead to progressive salt deposition, making soils unsuitable for cultivation. Soil salinity currently restricts plant growth on more than 351 million hectares of agricultural land worldwide 14 . The final traditional method for increasing agricultural production is to...

Increasing Availability

In addition to direct increases in yield and production, the availability of agricultural products can be increased by making more efficient use of the existing arable land area. At present, 34 of arable land is used to provide feed for livestock for both meat and dairy production. This accounts for 37 of global arable production 18 . The efficiency with which animal feed is converted to meat means much of the energy and biomass of the cereal is lost either through respiration or by accumulating in inedible parts of the animal. In the case of cattle, 10 kg of cereal are required to produce just 1 kg of beef 18 . The additional production steps also lead to further direct demands on land and energy. A switch to more efficient livestock would reduce the demand on land for feed production. For example, 2.4 and 1.7 kg of cereal are needed to produce 1 kg of pork and chicken, respectively. Reducing overall meat consumption would also reduce the demand on land for both feed production and...

Supplying the Chemical Industry

Various sources have suggested that 10 of oil is used in the petrochemical industry 2, 3 . Readily available data show that in the UK, 6 of total oil consumption is accounted for by nonenergy uses 1 . Taking this lower figure as a conservative estimate of global allocation of oil to the chemical industry, this places worldwide petrochemical oil consumption in the region of 220 million tonnes per year. If it is assumed that vegetable oil is functionally equivalent to the petroleum used in the manufacture of chemical products this means that total global vegetable oil production would meet just 60 of the chemical industry's oil requirement (Figure 3.8). As mentioned above, such direct substitution would be impractical and potentially undesirable on technical grounds. However, this example highlights the sheer size of the chemical industry and its demand for raw materials. Even using a more diverse range of crops, it is clear that existing scales of chemical production cannot be...

Synthetic versus Natural Nastiness

A common belief is that man has evolved to cope with naturally occurring chemicals, but not with those which do not occur naturally. This is certainly not universally true. The potato (Solanum tuberosum), for example, is well known to contain a range of potentially toxic chemicals, including carbohydrate derivatives of 3-hydroxysteroidal alkaloids, also known as glycoalkaloids. In cultivated potatoes, the major glycoalkaloids are a-solanine and a-chaconine, which are derivatives of solanidine but with different carbohydrate groups attached to the molecule. These have an LD50 of 42 mg kg1 (mice) and 84 mg kg1 (rats) respectively. Particularly high levels of these compounds are found in potatoes that are green owing to exposure to light. Their presence is, of course, natural - probably part of the plant's defence mechanisms against pathogens - and is therefore independent of whether the crop was produced by organic farming.

Plantbased pesticides

A number of plants have found use in different parts of the world for their pesticidal constituents. For example, Azadirachta indica Juss. (neem) preparations are marketed in the United States of America, Europe and Asia for use on both non-edible and edible crops. The growth in popularity of organic farming and organic food has further enhanced the importance of these materials.

Operating in a Natural Environment

Unlike fossil raw materials, renewable ones are not a result of geological or biological processes of the past but of the present biosphere. Hence, the yield of renewable raw materials such as agricultural crops and wood does not depend mainly on technological but on natural factors like climate, weather, seasons, topography, soil, size and spatial distribution of agricultural land and forests, and finally the type of biomass itself. All these factors need to be kept in mind when setting up a logistics concept for utilization chains of renewable raw materials.

Soil Management to Improve Crop Growth

The rotation for crops with deep root system or the inter-plantation of grain crops with forage plants can prevent plant diseases and insect pests, improve soil physical and hydraulic properties and the utilizations of soil water and nutrients, and increase soil fertility (Ilyas et al., 1993). The application of farmyard manure or chopped crop residues also can improve soil physical properties and soil fertility. The increased soil fertility can lessen soil saline sodic harms to crops.

Economic Return of Soil Reclamation

The purpose of soil reclamation is to increase grain and fiber outputs and obtain more economic return. However, the economic benefit of soil reclamation depends on not only local economic conditions but also social requirement. The expenditure on amendments, transport, labors, water source, and the price of products all affect the ratio of benefit to cost, and local social requirement on agricultural products may distort the evaluation of economic benefit on soil reclamation. Therefore, it is difficult to accurately estimate soil reclamation activity from economic aspect. The results of cost-benefit analysis of Datta et al. (2000) indicated that financial and economic feasibility was favorable to the installation of drainage pipes when salt-affected land was reclaimed by subsurface drainage system, and an internal rate of return of 8 was obtained. According to the experimental results of Ghafoor et al. (2008), the reclamation of salt-affected soil obtained a net benefit of 3, 17.7,...

Case Study 3 Metal fluxes from households to STPs sludge and agricultural soils

One of the most important routes for trace metal transport from the anthroposphere to sensitive ecosystems and to human targets is via municipal sewers to sewage treatment plants and further on to sludge, which may be recycled to agricultural land and, thus, back to the crop food production system. It is therefore important to identify the dominant sources of potentially harmful trace metals occurring in the sewage treatment process, to undertake a speciation of these metals and assess their availability for uptake into crops and their toxicity to soil micro-organisms. Several broad reviews of these problems have been published in the last few years, with a special focus on Cu.

Triple quadrupole mass analysers

GC with QqQ MS MS for the multi-residue analysis of pesticides in vegetables, validated the method on cucumbers, then expanded the scope of the method, and validated on strawberries 59 . Okihashi et al. 60 dealt with the simultaneous analysis of 260 pesticide residues in agricultural products. Two MS MS transitions were selected for each analyte using the intensity ratio obtained from them as a confirmatory parameter. The sensitivity of this method was lower than with most of the selective GC detectors, such as flame photometric or single MS. The selectivity of QqQ gives a very clean chromatogram, making compound identification and confirmation easy. Other examples are the determination of xenoestrogens (pesticides, PCBs and polybrominated diphenyl ethers) in human breast tissues 61 , organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides in animal liver 62 and meat samples 63 . Also, low-pressure gas chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LP-GC-MS MS) conditions were...

Use of sewage sludge as a fertiliser in agriculture

A sustainable agriculture must be based upon an ecologically sound management of organic and nutrient waste in society, including optimal recycling. This implies that the organic material and nutrients contained in the crops, after having passed through society, should as far as possible be recycled back to the agricultural system. Therefore, the management of sewage sludge in an economically and environmentally acceptable manner is one of the critical issues facing society today. The scope of this challenge is currently increasing within the European Union (EU), since the amount of sludge produced by STPs is rapidly increasing as a result of the obligations laid down in various EU Directives. On the one hand, priority is given to beneficial uses of sludge and to recycling phosphorus and other plant nutrients contained in the sludge back to the food chain, rather than disposal by landfilling. On the other hand, the presence of various contaminants in the sludge has initiated boycott...

Sustainable trace metal loadings to agricultural soils

Considered to be an essential element at least for some living organisms). In spite of the fact that chromium, copper, nickel and zinc - to various degrees - are essential nutrients, they may all become toxic at elevated levels. Therefore, limits for the exposure of man and the environment to these elements need to be based on a scientific evaluation of potential short and long term risks, both with regard to deficiencies and toxic effects. Such an evaluation needs to recognise the potential benefits and potential harm caused by application of trace metal-containing sewage sludge to agricultural land and indirectly, the benefits and risks for crops, animals, and human beings. Natural trace metal levels in soils depend on the natural geological and physico-chemical characteristics of the soils. Total concentrations of trace metals in top-soils of agricultural land in European countries obviously show a considerable variation from region to region and even from place to place or field...

Consideration of Competing Utilization Pathways

Many of the utilization chains which are currently developed compete between them as well as with already established or enforced usages of the same resource. One example is the use of lignocellulosis which can be used in lignocellulosic feedstock biorefineries, thermochemical BtL, and SNG processes as well as for heat and power supply in power plants and households. As there is no direct competition with the food chain in this case the possible ethical issues of forest-based utilization pathways appear to be minor as long as a sustainable use of the forests is ensured. However, due to the increasing demand for food and renewable raw materials there is an intense competition about land between agriculture and forestry. In countries without a legal framework that prevents conversion of forestland into agricultural land large areas of forests are being converted. This is because agriculture is usually more profitable.

NRCS Technique Estimation of Runoff Water

For agricultural land in the watershed, the effective rainfall (R) and the runoff curve numbers are determined first then the runoff equation is applied to estimate the runoff water (Q) for soil under forest, pasture, and crop . The equation calculated runoff water in inches (depth of water) . Values are usually converted to millimeters

Estimating Elements Loss by Runoff

Nutrients such as N, K, P, and other agricultural chemicals are released from a thin layer of surface soil that interacts with rainfall and runoff. In chemical transport models, the thickness of the interaction zone is determined by model calibration with experimental data, with depths ranging between 2 0 and 6.0 mm (Donigian et al ., 1977) . Frere et al. (1980), however, suggested an interaction zone of 10 mm, assuming that only a fraction of the chemical present in this depth interacts with rainfall water In previous studies in this laboratory, Elrashidi et al (2003, 2004, 2005a,b, 2007a,b, 2008, 2009) successfully used a fixed soil thickness of 10 mm to estimate the loss of nutrients and heavy metals by runoff from agricultural land

Wagon Train Watershed

The Wagon Train (WT) Watershed has a 315-acre (128-hectare) reservoir located on the Hickman Branch of Salt Creek (Platte River Basin) in Lancaster County, Nebraska (Figure 7.1). The reservoir was constructed primarily as a flood control structure by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1962. The total drainage area encompasses 9,984 acres (4,042 hectares) of agricultural land . Most of the area (70 ) is cultivated with crops soybean (Glycine willd), corn (Zea mays L .), wheat (Triticum aestivum L .), sunflower (Helianthus L), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). The remainder of the watershed is mostly covered with grassland, while forestland, wetland, and urban development account for small areas Nine soil series (Wymore, Pawnee, Nodaway, Sharpsburg, Mayberry, Colo, Judson, Burchard, and Kennebec) account for 96 . 1 of the agricultural land . Nearly three-quarters of the watershed consists of Wymore and Pawnee soils

Coalbed Methane Produced Water In The Western Us

Livestock production is the most economically significant agricultural land use in many locales of the western United States where CBM production has expanded rapidly in the past decade. Most of these areas are characterized by semiarid climates, where evaporative demand far exceeds annual precipitation. Correspondingly, with the exception of stream and river floodplains and mountain valleys, most of the associated landscapes are rangelands, dominated by sparsely growing native grasses, forbs,3 shrubs, and drought-tolerant woody plant species. Livestock production is sustained by rangeland and forest grazing, supplemented by winter feeding of grass and alfalfa hay reserves harvested along stream and river corridors during the summer growing season. Where water of sufficient quantity and quality is available, irrigation has been developed to expand livestock forage production as a source of winter feedstocks. In 2007, Montana and Wyoming produced approximately 6 million tons of hay...

Soil and Water Sampling

Many small streams receive surface water runoff from the agricultural land in the watershed Eventually, streams located northerly of the reservoir join in a single stream that runs southerly about 0 . 5 km before entering the reservoir near the north edge Water samples taken along the main stream were assumed to represent the surface water runoff generated from the entire watershed Most of the surface water runoff from the agricultural land in the WT watershed and water inflow for the WT reservoir are expected during the rainy season in the spring, summer, and fall (March through November) During the period from March through November, weekly water samples were collected from the main stream (Figure 7. 1) . The analysis for major streams proved that samples taken from the main stream are representative of runoff generated from the entire watershed (Elrashidi et al , 2005a,b)

Elements in Runoff and Loading

One of the objectives of this study was to estimate the impact of agricultural land on water quality (nonpoint source of elements contamination) in the WT reservoir. For the agricultural land in the WT watershed, we assumed that most element loss by runoff from soils and those detected in the stream water were transported eventually to the WT reservoir We used the average element concentrations in the stream water and the predicted volume of monthly surface water runoff to estimate the monthly elements loading (kilograms) into the WT reservoir (Table 7. 5) .

Environmental Impact from the Use of Bt Toxin

Abstract Use of chemical pesticides was one of the key factors in the success of the green revolution. The wide spread and unregulated use of chemical pesticides however, has led to harmful effects on both agricultural land and humans. Compared to chemical pesticides, the potential benefits such as specificity, biodegradability and safety, associated with biopesticides had projected them as a viable alternative to chemical pesticides. The Cry toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are the most popular and widely used biopesticide covering more than 90 of the biopesticide market. Their use has afforded positive economic benefits to the producers and has also led to a huge reduction in the use of chemical pesticides. Recombinant DNA technology has also allowed us to develop transgenic Bt crops. However, the problems associated with the use of cry proteins remain to be fully addressed, understood and tackled. The effect on non-target insects and the resulting imbalance in the natural food...

Sludge application and contaminated soils

To maintain a sustainable agriculture and society, the recycling of nutrients from the city back to agricultural lands is needed. Due to its high nutrient content and soil ameliorating properties, sewage sludge from wastewater treatments is an essential part of this recycling process. The problem is that it contains also potentially toxic elements, like trace metals.

Herbicides and Pesticide Pollution on Microbial Activities

Unfortunately, modern agriculture is increasingly dependant on extensive use of pesticides. Soil organisms are an integral part of the soil and promote an interaction among all soil populations (bacteria, fungi, algae and fauna). Pesticides are organic chemicals, which vary greatly in chemical structure and are highly toxic to biota. Soil surfaces treated with pesticide sprays are affected by ultraviolet photons with an outcome of breakdown of the molecule. Toxic effects of the degradation

Restoration Techniques Used in Poland Versus Spontaneous Succession

Under laboratory conditions, we mostly inoculated the plants with one fungal species, while under field conditions the plants are actually inhabited by several different strains or species. Studying the metal uptake by plants is one of the examples that must be carried out with a single species. It is well established that the response of the plant can vary depending upon the AMF isolate and species (Adjoud et al. 1996 Streitwolf-Engel et al. 2001 van der Heijden et al. 1998). AMF were already reported to decrease or increase HM uptake by plants (Leyval et al. 1997). Although these phenomena strongly depend on the selection of appropriate plant and fungal genotypes, there is mounting evidence that they can provide a potential for decreasing the health hazards which accompany edible plant production, and they can improve sustainable agriculture and phytoremediation technologies, including phytoextraction (Jurkiewicz et al. 2004 Turnau and Mesjasz-Przybylowicz 2003).

Pest Resistance to Herbicides and Pesticides

Pesticides are used to control pests which may cause economic losses to agricultural products and livestock. The widespread use of herbicides and pesticides may cause weeds and insects to eventually develop resistance to particular chemicals which ultimately compel growers to apply yet multiple or more dose. It is evidently expected that if impacts of herbicides and pesticides are neglected, it will commonly lead to an extensive and long-term effects on mankind and other living beings. Some of the constituents in some specific pesticides are noticeably poisonous which are supposed to be immobile. Occasionally, prior to pesticide application, there is a natural resistance in a small number of individual's pest population against some specific pesticides. After the treatment of pesticide, a number of vulnerable pests have been expectedly executed while natively resistant may perhaps stay alive, reproduce and may multiply their population. Therefore, continued application of similar...

Limiting Factors and Threats

Biopesticides need to break away from the single-technology approach of chemical pesticides and be implemented as key components of an IPM system. They should not be used in the same conceptual model as chemicals, and they should not be expected to out compete chemicals. Growers also need to change their use patterns in crop protection and think more about truly integrated approaches. The grower's difficulty in adoption of biological alternatives is the increased knowledge to make it function as well as the costs. This is part of a larger problem of declining returns in agriculture. Growers need to receive better returns for their product if they are going to spend more capital on their inputs such as more biological and natural solutions for their pest and disease problems. If the consumer wants sustainable agriculture and safe food, he will have to be willing to pay more for his food. Although regulatory innovation is taking place, its pace is much too slow. Governments need to give...

Integrated Weed Management System

Awareness regarding weed metabolisms and the suitable weed removal technologies. Different farming practices can contribute to weed suppression such as crop rotation, cover crops and intercrops, making improvements to soil with previous crop remains, and addition and improvements to soil organic matter. Seed selection and seed mass may also represent as one of the key sources for suppression of weeds to protect crops from expected dangers. There is need to make improvements for the implementation of this technology efficiently which is not easy, but it is critical for development of sustainable farming systems.

Benefits vs Risks to Use Herbicides and Pesticides

There has been an increasing reliance on herbicides and pesticides leading to minimize the need for traditional farming system. Ultimately, cropping patterns have been adapted, driven to further increase crop output, to rely more on these products, which in return are rewarding economically to farmers. Pesticide and herbicide use is not only limited to the agricultural community, there are a number of lawn, garden and home care chemicals that help to get rid of unwanted plants and animals. Likely impact of herbicides and pesticides on atmosphere and community health is of great significance regardless of their noticeable benefits. Concerns related to community strength settlement such as increased crop production to supply safe and enough food and considerable reduction for the incidence of vector borne disease is being recognized by applying pesticides (Laws and Hayes 1991). Likewise, approximately three-fourth of the pesticides has been applied for crop production in the USA and the...

Environmental Sustainability of Nuclear Energy

Non-radiological, which can be caused due to routine and accidental release of radioactive wastes into the natural environment. The sources of these impacts are the releases of materials through atmospheric, liquid, and solid waste pathways. Gaseous release directly reaches into the atmosphere and the air becomes contaminated. The contaminated air is either inhaled by humans or deposited into the soil. Once the soil is contaminated through the nuclear waste, surface and ground water bodies are affected, and the water will eventually be ingested through agricultural products or seafood. In this way, nuclear wastes will increase the cost of human health, the actual cost continuously increasing with time.

Production of Fertilizers

The poultry waste generated as poultry feed can also be applied for organic farming as a semi-slow-release nitrogen fertilizer (Hadas and Kautsky 1994 Choi and Nelson 1996). Feather contains some amounts of fat approximating to as much as 12 of its dry weight. Fat content of feathers have been reported to hinder its colonization by the microorganisms (Baxter and Trotter 1969 Pugh and Evans 1970 Deshmukh et al. 1981). Above reports also indicated the need of fat extraction from the poultry feathers to make the microbial processes more quick and economical. Narsimharao Koundamudi and his colleagues suggested a process of feather treatment for extraction of fat from chicken feather meal using boiling water and processing it to biodiesel which is estimated to generate approximately 593 million gallons of biodiesel worldwide, in addition to have a higher grade of animal feed and a better nitrogen source for fertilizer applications ( Kondamudi et al. 2009) .

Patented pyrazine herbicides

The control of unwanted vegetation by means of chemical agents, i.e. herbicides, is an important aspect of modern agriculture and land management's. While many chemicals that are useful for the control of unwanted vegetation are known, new compounds that are more effective generally, are more effective for specific plant species, are less damaging to desirable vegetation, are safer to man or the environment, are less expensive to use or have other advantageous attributes, are desirable (Benko, 1997). Many structural variations of pyrazine compounds with herbicidal properties can be found in the patent literature. Several thiazolopyrazines exhibited pre-emergent herbicidal activity when applied as aqueous drenches to soil planted with seeds of certain plants. For example, application of 4000 ppm of compound IV (Fig. 3) resulted in emergence inhibition of crabgrass (50 of the

Intensification Impact

In some locations such as the Gezira Scheme in Sudan, extensification12 of agricultural land occurred through development of irrigation infrastructure in dryland regions or by clearing forested and savannah regions in tropical to subtropical latitudes, such as the Amazon basin. For the most part, however, increases in agricultural productivity have occurred due to intensification measures adopted on existing croplands. Consequently, new agricultural lands have increased a relatively modest 1.1-fold since the early 1960s.58 The greater energy, nutrient and irrigation inputs to existing croplands have substantially raised productivity levels, and by doing so have avoided converting natural habitats and further damaging biodiversity. Another positive effect of agricultural intensification on the environment has been a reduction of greenhouse gases. This is based on an analysis that compared actual global inputs over the The above examples really point to the expansion of agriculture...

Pesticide Oil Degradation and Remediation by Cyanobacteria

Many chemicals are released into surface water either as a method of disposal or as a consequence of the technology of the utilization. In particular, the use of pesticide many of which are toxic or contain toxic contaminants, is central to high yields of modern agriculture. Lindane is a toxic compound with potential long term persistence (Meister 1993 Alexander 1994). Anabaena sp.PCC71208 and Nostoc ellip-sosporum co-metabolise lindane. Stimulation of the rate of degradation of lindane by nitrate may be attributable to increased availability of nitrogen to nitrate supplemented culture. Fleming and Haselkorn (1974) found that atleast eight protein molecules were synthesised by nitrate-grown culture of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 that were not derived from nitrate nitrogen growing cultures. Alternatively, same proteins were involved in the transport or metabolism of lindane. Anabaena sp. strain

Soil Metals Contamination Risks Source and Control

The realistic situation of soil with low background toxic metal level has been sharply broken under types of human activities. As a typical example, around 22,000 t (metric ton) cadmium has been released worldwide over the past five decades (Singh et al., 2003). Metal-contaminated soil has been reported at more than 50,000 sites in the USA (Ensley, 2000), 80,000 in Germany (Franzius 1994), and similar areas in other countries. There were ca. 100,000 ha of land contaminated by heavy metals in Europe and in the USA, with the shrinkage of about 10,000 ha for agricultural land, even applying the less strict thresholds of the present soil protection regulation (Lewandowski et al., 2006). Soil arsenic reached up to 186 mg kg in El Paso, TX (EPA, 2003) and 2330 mg kg at the Tresavean copper mine in Cornwall, UK. In China, arsenic content in arsenic-contaminated soils reached 800-45000 mg kg (Wang et al., 2006a), far higher than the limit for agriculture soil (only 40 mg kg requested by...

Pendimethalin Review In Sesame 2008 To 2016

Report 1972-3, Institute of Agricultural Research. Ethiopia, p. 168. Malik, N. & Muhammed-Ramzan. ( 1992). Effect of herbicides and cultural operations on weed control and grain yield sesame, Journal of Agricultural Research Lahore 30, 147-152. Moore, J. (1973a). Sesame herbicide trial-setit Humera. Progress Report for the Period April 1972 to March 1973, Ethiopia Institute of Agricultural Research Station. Sesame herbicide screening trial Melka Werer. Pp. 175-177. Moore, J. (1973b). Sesame herbicide screening trial-Melka Werer, Progress Report for the period April 1972 to March 1973, Ethiopia Institute of Agricultural Research Station. Sesame herbicide screening trial Melka Werer. Pp.168-174.

Sustainable Chemical Approach

This reaction shows that if ethylene from a source (natural or otherwise) is oxidized, it will convert to ethylene oxide. The introduction of water to ethylene oxide will change it to ethylene glycol. The principal argument put forward here is that if no artificial product (e.g., catalysts that don't exist in natural environment) is added to the left hand side of the equation, then the resulting ethylene oxide and, eventually, the ethylene glycol will not be detrimental to the environment. This is equivalent to organic farming, in which natural fertilizers and pesticides are used.

Impact of Mussel Consumption to Human Health 9441 Beneficial Effects If Mussel Consumption

Mussel production and consumption has been increasing worldwide. There is a growing demand for bivalves, not only in historically developed countries, but also in developing regions. The prospects for expansion of the bivalve industry in developing countries will depend on their ability to build reliable monitoring and inspection programs and implement sustainable farming practices. The global outlook suggests a need for a 50 increase in world food production within next 30-40 years. This is a tremendous challenge in itself, also bearing in mind that food production is a key driver in the degradation of the environment and natural resources.

Persistent Organic Pollutants

However, more recent research has identified one plant species (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) that has significant potential for remediating POP-contaminated soils. In a 1994 study in Germany, Hulster et al. (1994) reported that zucchini fruit could accumulate weathered dioxins from soil via a soil-to-plant transport mechanism and that this differed from other related species (cucumber), which seemed to accumulate the chemicals largely via air-to-plant pathways. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station (CAES) scientists expanded on this initial observation and began investigating the potential phytoremediation of soils contaminated with weathered persistent organic pollutants by a range of plant species. Research at CAES has focused largely on two organochlorine insecticides DDE, the primary estrogenic metabolite of DDT, and chlordane. The species investigated

Oxygen Release By Roots Into Rhizosphere Of Helophytes

Knowledge about the input of carbon from plants into the rhizosphere (rhizodeposition) mainly comes from agricultural research. The quantity of C-compounds released by agricultural crops has been estimated at 10-40 of net photosynthetic production 112 . The composition of the exudates is highly diverse and species-specific. For example, sugars and vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavine and pyridoxine etc., organic acids such as malate, citrate, amino acids, benzoic acids, and phenolic compounds have all been identified 113 . Rhizodeposition may initiate the mobilization of nutrients 114 , allelopathic effects 113 , and the stimulation of microbial growth and activity inside the rhizosphere 112, 115-117 .

Adverse Effects of Herbicides and Pesticides on Ecosystem 31 Effects on Structure and Functions of Ecosystem

The most hazardous pesticides to ecosystem are insecticides (DDT, dieldrin, diazinon, parathion, and aldicarb), herbicides (2,4-D, atrazine, paraquat, and glyphosate) and fungicides (benomyl, captan, mercury, copper, and pentachlorophe-nol). They may pollute the environment, which in turn causes decline in the natural flora and fauna. Sometimes, it may result to the contamination of agricultural products which leads to a decrease in biological diversity. If the biological diversity level gets upset then ecological imbalance may occur. This ultimately may lead to other problems like weed and pest infestation. Farming applications may affect biological diversity, e.g., removing natural flora and fauna which may result in weed invasion, diminishing of naturally occuring predators from an ecosystem which may lead to an outbreak of pests and weed species. Species and habitat diversity is needed to be maintained for conservation of biodiversity. Therefore good farm management applications...

Results and Discussion

Several studies have been carried out in Jordan concerning wastewater and sewage sludge quality and reuse. However, limited number of those studies concerned with persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The following sections discussed the occurrence of some priority organic pollutants and their environmental risk for reclaimed water and sewage sludge reuse on agricultural land. This paper is aimed to give a future prospective toward the obstacles and In Jordan, the concentration levels of 16 PAH in domestic sewage sludge have been investigated in three sites in Karak province, their concentration ranged from 28.7 to 39.3 (g kg-1 (Jiries et al. 2000). Assessment of bio-solids quality at several domestic wastewater treatment plants of Wadi Mousa, Wadi Hassan and at Jordan University of Science & Technology for agricultural land application was conducted through Badia Research Development Program by Royal Scientific Society (RRS), International Arid lands Consortium (IALC), and...

Permitted trace metal loads to agricultural soils

In addition to regulating the trace metal loading rate for sludge on agricultural land, most countries, as well as the EU, have also set limits for concentrations of trace metals (and of some persistent organic compounds) in sludge for use on land. Examples of such maximum trace metal concentrations in sludges in the EU (today and proposals for the future), as well as in Member States, are given in Table 4.7. It should be noted that while most concentrations are given as mg kg dry matter (DM), the proposed short-term limits in the EU are also given in terms of mg kg P, because one of the major incentives for a farmer of using sewage sludge on his her land is to make use of the phosphorus in the sludge as a fertiliser. A concentration expressed on the basis of the P content of the sludge is also a much more stable base for interpretation, since sludges produced according to various stabilisation techniques will exhibit greatly varying dry contents. This means

Conclusion About Plant Adaptation

Herbicides and pesticides are used to increase the agricultural products and it is based on the effective use of technology and inputs. Their direct or indirect toxic potential to biological systems has been proven extensively. This technology could be economical and effective if a number of factors are considered before selection

Bioremediation of Inorganic Pollutants 471 Heavy Metal

Irrespective of the origin of the metals in the soil, excessive levels of many metals can result in soil quality degradation, crop yield reduction, and poor quality of agricultural products (Long et al. 2002). Since heavy metals are not biodegradable and may enter the food chain, they are a long-term threat to both the environment and human health (Jarup 2003) . It includes the metals metalloids, such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), and zinc (Zn). Other less common metallic species that can be considered as contaminants include aluminum (Al), cesium (Cs), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), strontium (Sr), and uranium (U) (Mclntyre 2003). Pb, one of the most persistent metals, was estimated to have a soil retention time of 150-5,000 years and was reported to maintain high concentration for as long as 150 years after sludge application to soil (NandaKumar et al. 1995). The average...

Environmental Concentrations

Concentrations of AHTN and HHCB measured in digested sludge in Germany 24 , The Netherlands 25, 20 and Switzerland 26 ranged between 1 and 30 mg kg. As sludge is always collected during a longer time before it may find an application onto agricultural land, variations in the concentrations are evened out. Therefore the median concentration, 5 and 10 mg kg-1 for AHTN and HHCB, respectively, is more meaningful than the 90th-percentile of these samples (20 and 28 mg kg-1, respectively). The concentrations of the other polycyclic musks were below the concentration of AHTN by a factor of 13.

Reclamation Strategy Phyto BioRemediation and Its Management

As discussed above, crop plantation plays an important role on calcareous sodic soil reclamation because it can supply suitable Ca2+ by the mobilization of native calcareous minerals in soil. The mechanisms of phytoremediation on calcareous sodic soils were discussed by Qadir and Oster (2002) and Qadir et al. (2002). During phytoremediation, soil CO2 concentration is critical to the dissolution of native calcareous minerals, soluble Ca2+ supply, and consequently reclamation success (Li and Keren, 2008). Therefore, any measure that can increase CO2 concentration or reduce pH value in soil is favorable to native CaCO3 dissolution and sodic reclamation (Robbins, 1986a Li and Keren, 2008). The application of plant residues, farmyard or green manures, and acid cheese whey also is helpful to enhance calcareous sodic soil remediation (Robbins, 1986b Jones et al., 1992 Chorom and Rengasamy, 1997 Li and Keren, 2009). However, phytoremediation with crop planting usually is better than...

Sustainable Use Of Wastewater And Sludge In Jordan Residues Of Persistent Organic Pollutants A Review

Jordan is located in arid to semi arid environment that characterized by low amounts of wet precipitation, hot summer and cold winter. Jordan is facing a future of very limited water resources, among the lowest per capita worldwide. Water scarcity is the single most important natural constraint to the country's economic growth and development. All these factors have negative impacts on the agricultural activities in the area, despite the fact that Jordan soils are characterized by high nutrients contents. Therefore, more attention should be paid for wastewater reuse as alternative water resource for irrigation purposes. In addition, Sewage sludge is still considered a waste product in most developing countries such as in Jordan and its disposal or reuse are listed as one of the major priorities for the wastewater management plans for these countries and particularly the country of Jordan. However, with the realization of sustainable development the recycling and reuse of valuable...

Cultivation and Harvesting for Selected Types of Renewable Raw Materials 4311 Agricultural Production

Furthermore, the fundamental principle of crop rotation underlies commercial agriculture 47 . Unlike in untouched environments where several species share a habitat, agricultural fields are planted with monocultures for one entire life cycle of a crop. As this exhausts the soil and makes plantations vulnerable to weeds and pests, natural diversity needs to be simulated by a systematic seasonal sequence of different crops. Cover crops (e.g., mustard) can be grown to close gaps in the sequence and to support soil recreation. The latter effect is also created by the incorporation of set-aside land into the crop rotation. Cultivation-Fertilization, Irrigation, and Crop Protection Although the metabolism of a field crop is based on sunlight, carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, nutrients from the soil and groundwater as well as precipitation, addition of nutrients usually increases the yield and supports soil recreation. Fertilization is therefore an important step in agricultural...

What are we Trying to Protect

The identification and adoption of different principles for setting protection goals, means that it is possible to establish an approach to risk assessment in which not all patches of habitat are treated equally. Areas with high ecological value (e.g. nature reserves, conservation areas) can be afforded a high degree of protection by applying the pollution prevention principle, whereas less pristine habitats in areas of intensive land use (e.g. agricultural land) could be adequately protected by adopting the carrying capacity or functional redundancy principle. The development of a targeted approach to protection goals setting and its potential application to environmental risk assessment is discussed by Brock et al.33

Mobility of Heavy Metals in Tropical Land

Soil acidity is a major problem to agriculture in the tropics. Estimates of the world's potentially arable land resources indicate that only 10.6 of the total land area of the world is cultivated while about 24.2 is considered cultivable (US President's Advisory Committee Report 1967 FAO 1991 Buringh et al. 1975). Of these 2.5 billion hectares of potentially cultivable land, 68 is located in the humid tropics (Von Uexkull and Mutert 1995). The acid soils of the tropics, especially those in the savannas, have the greatest potential for future agricultural development (Dunal 1988). On a global scale, there are two main geographical belts of acid soils the humid northern temperate zone that is covered by coniferous forest, and the humid tropics, which are (or in some cases were) covered mainly by savanna and tropical rainforest. Soil acidification can develop naturally in humid climates when basic cations are leached from soils, but can also be considerably accelerated by certain farming...

Microbial Diversity in Soils

Soil is a natural medium in which microbes live, multiply and die. Increasing attention is being directed towards microorganisms because the fertility of soil depends not only on its chemical composition but also on the qualitative and quantitative nature of the microorganisms inhabiting it. The maintenance of viable, diverse populations and functioning microbial communities in the soil is essential for sustainable agriculture (Beare et al. 1995 Benizri et al. 2002). Thus, interest in

Microbial Communities

Primarily PGPR were applied to strengthen plant health and to increase crop yield. Subsequently strategies on PGPR supported phytoremediation of organically or inorganically polluted soils were developed from the knowledge gained in sustainable agriculture. Originally the group of PGPR has been described for Pseudomonas strains active as biocontrol organisms (Kloepper and Schroth 1978). Biocontrol has huge power to contain plant pathogens that threaten crop yield in disturbed but agriculturally used land. Especially in environments that provoke stress in plants, the use of biocontrol microorganisms seems to be an advantageous alternative to the application of pesticides. Intensified pest infestation on stressed plants and subsided symptom development due to PGPR activity are well investigated (Han et al. 2005 Babalola 2010). Nevertheless the term PGPR, coined by Kloepper and Schroth, was later extended to be applied for any bacterial isolate actively or passively promoting plant...

Promotional Factors and Trends

Organic production of food has experienced worldwide growth surpassing 32 million hectares in 2007, and the area continues to expand (www.organic-world.net). It is Benuzzi's (2009) and my own experience that only about 10 of the sales of biopesticides occur in organic agriculture. The use of microbials in organic production is allowed, but not recommended by the major regulations and standards (Speiser et al. 2006). I do not expect this to change dramatically, and biopesticides will continue to be mainly used in conventional agriculture. The extensive use of chemical insecticides and fungicides in agriculture has a negative effect on biodiversity. Insecticides also reduce the biological control potential (Geiger et al. 2010). Through the implementation of the Convention of Biodiversity governments are required to improve conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and to mitigate negative impacts and to support sustainable agriculture. The Directive 2009 128 EC (EC 2009b)...

Metabolism And Genetic Engineering Studies For Herbicide Phytoremediation

Herbicides are extensively used for the purpose of crop cultivation and still remain as an important strategy for the commercial agriculture. However, the widespread use of herbicides has resulted in both point source and non-point source contamination of shallow groundwater and surface waters, which became a major issue and a serious environmental problem 1 . Phytoremediation is an alternative technique to effectively cleanup herbicides from soil and groundwater, since plants possess highly efficient systems for the removal and transformation of these compounds. Plant-based remediation can accelerate natural attenuation processes from contaminated sites by taking up significant quantities of water, and herbicides may be transformed into less toxic forms.

Microbial Pest Control Products

Numerous microbial pest control products for control of arthropod pests have been developed in the past and are developed at present. In theory, they offer one of the most sustainable and ecologically acceptable means of crop protection for modern agriculture. Generally, they are intended to replace synthetic chemical pesticides as our society requires sustainable pest control solutions that are safe to humans and to the environment. Research on new biocontrol agents, frequently initiated by academic scientists, promises elegant solutions. Companies translate these research results into the development of a commercial product. Many of these new products, however, do not become successful in the market, and companies fail to achieve a profitable business. Annual sales of microbial pesticides are reported to be 750 million globally, amounting only to 2.5 of the chemical market (Evans 2008). An imperative question is whether it is possible to identify the obstacles and constraints to the...

Pollution Levels in Plants and Animals

Basically, when you use something with nature, either with animals, insects, or humans nature gets used to what you're using and that means that it won't be as effective. Herbicides and pesticides are present in our food supply (plants, animals, fish and grains), although some of these are directly carcinogenic. Organic farms free of herbicides and pesticides naturally promote a healthy environment as it encourages wildlife. Indeed, the potential health effects are of great concern for long-term exposure of herbicides and pesticides to human beings, animals livestock and crops (Igbedioh 1991). Plants are the major ultimate recipients of herbicides and pesticides, either from direct application, soil uptake, or atmospheric drift. These may reside on the surface of plants or by their lipophilicity they may penetrate the cuticle of leaves, fruits, stems, roots, or seeds (Finlayson and MacCarthy 1965). Animals, in part, due to an efficient circulatory and excretory system tend to...

Soil Degradation and Chemical Farming

Since the 1980s the growth of land converted to cropland has decreased however, the yields per hectare have increased from 1.8 to 2.5 metric tons. This has been achieved by a combination of both better farming practices and industrialized farming practices. Industrial farming practices include

In Vitro Selection for Salt Tolerance

As it was seen from the previous works, biochemical or genetical approaches have not always brought the success for the crop plants exposed to saline conditions. Those plants either lost their tolerance to salt after some time following their generation or they did not show high tolerance to salt as desired. Therefore, a new approach or a new alternative method should be introduced to the agricultural sciences for the crop plants exposed to salinity. One of the methods for the crop plants under saline conditions is to grow them with halophytes, thus allowing crop plants to use more energy to elaborate substances for the fruit or crop development, instead of building up mechanisms of tolerance (Graifenberg et al. 2003).

About the Editors

After completing M.Sc. and Ph.D. at the University of Saugar (India), T. Satyanarayana had post-doctoral stints at the University of Bhopal and France. In 1988, he joined the Department of Microbiology, University of Delhi South Campus as Associate Professor and became Professor in 1998. His research efforts have been focused on understanding the diversity of yeasts, and thermophilic fungi and bacteria, their enzymes and potential applications, heterotrophic carbon sequestration and meta-genomics, and cloning and expression of yeast and bacterial genes encoding industrial enzymes. He has published over 160 scientific papers and reviews, and edited three books. He is a fellow of the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Association of Microbiologists of India, Mycological Society of India and Biotech Research Society of India, and a recipient of Dr. G.B. Manjrekar award of the Association of Microbiologists of India in 2003 and Dr. V.S. Agnihotrudu Memorial award of MSI in 2009...

Biotic Stress

Biotic stress is stress that occurs as a result of damage done to plants by other living organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, harmful insects, nematode and weeds. It is a major focus of agricultural research, due to the vast economic losses caused by biotic stress to cash crops. Global loss because of pathogens is estimated to be 12 of potential crop productivity. The relationship between biotic stress and plant yield, affects economic decisions as well as practical development. The impact of biotic injury on crop yield impacts population dynamics, plant stress or co-evolution, and ecosystem nutrient cycling. The major biotic stresses affecting crops are fungal diseases although insects, viruses, bacteria and parasitic weeds can also drastically decrease crop production. The relative importance of aerial fungal diseases and their effect on yield varies among years and cropping regions. Foliar diseases caused by biotrophic pathogens, such as rusts, downy mildews and...

Current Situation

Section 3.2.2 identified starch, sugars, and oils as the three agricultural products most useful as raw materials for the chemical industry using established processing and conversion technologies. As staple food products, these are already produced on a massive scale worldwide. Cereal crop cultivation for the production of starch as a source of dietary carbohydrate accounts for the vast majority of arable farming. In 2007, more than 2.3 billion tonnes of cereals were produced on approximately 700 million hectares of land. Wheat, maize, and rice are the dominant crop species, together accounting for 75 of the global cereal area. The total area used for cereal cultivation has remained relatively static over the last 50 years (Figure 3.2). However, significant increases in yield (Figure 3.3) means that total cereal production has more than doubled in the period since 1960 (Figure 3.4). led to a major expansion of oilseed rape production in Europe during the last 40 years. More recently,...

Input Sources

Input sources of pollutants to lakes are similar to those discussed in Chapter 1. We will be concerned with point and non-point sources and use pulse and step inputs to develop our fate and transport models. Common point inputs include industrial sites and feedlot sources, as well as effluent from domestic sewage plants. Non-point sources can include runoff from farming practices and agricultural settings. Underground non-point sources can include leachate from domestic and hazardous waste landfills or storage tanks. The physical characteristics of lakes can add unique input sources. Most lakes that are used for recreational activities experience pollution by outboard motors, which are notorious for releasing petroleum-related compounds. Although these compounds are not highly soluble, some of these compounds dissolve into the water and are spread throughout a lake. This is a non-point, but continuous, source of pollutants.

Summary

These measures will come with environmental costs that must be weighed against the environmental and social benefits of using renewable and carbon-neutral materials. The enormous size of the chemical industry and the demand for food from agriculture mean that it is unlikely that agricultural products will completely replace petrochemical materials. However, renewable raw materials may find widespread use in certain market sectors where they confer technical advantages or add value to consumer products. Consequently, agriculture will be one of many contributors to sustainable chemical production.

Online techniques

Fully automated on-line LC-GC systems for fractionation and clean-up have been described 90 . The systems can be based on large volume injection via a cool on-column injector or a PTV injector. The first system allows the enrichment of both volatiles and semi-volatiles, while the second is restricted to the analysis of semi-volatiles. De Paoli et al. 91 constructed an on-line GPC-normal phase LC-GC-FPD system for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in fruit. Hyotylainen et al. 92 described an on-line microporous membrane LLE-GC-MS system for the determination of pesticides in red wines. Jongenotter and Janssen 93 applied on-line GPC-GC-FPD for the determination of organopho-sphorus pesticides in edible oil. A similar system using MS as detection was used by Liu et al. 94 for measuring multi-residual pesticides in agricultural products. Pesticides were extracted from homogenised food samples with acetonitrile and decontaminated via DSPE with PSAm as sorbent. The on-line...

GIS Digital Mapping

Digital maps for water and nutrient losses from agricultural land in the watershed are generated by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) software The principal spatial data layer used is the Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) (USDA NRCS, 1999) . Both the National Land Cover (NLCD, 1992), and National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS, 2003) spatial layers are used to identify areas of forest, pasture, and crop within the watershed Other types of land cover, such as urban, water, or marsh, are usually not mapped for the watershed The proposed technique calculated water and nutrient losses as well as concentrations in runoff and leaching water for soils under different types of land cover (forest, pasture, and crop) Thus, GIS mapping of agricultural land in the watershed includes data layers for soils and land cover as well as water or elements

Case Study

In this study, we investigated eight heavy metals (Al, Fe, Si, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in twelve major soils in the Wagon Train Watershed, Lancaster County, Nebraska . We were interested in understanding the role of these agriculture soils as a nonpoint source of metals contamination to surface waters . Heavy storms may generate runoff events that remove dissolved soil chemicals from agricultural land to surface water bodies (nonpoint source of contamination). Most heavy metals have natural input to streams, rivers, and lakes from weathering and dissolution of oxides, carbonate, and silicate minerals in soils However, anthropogenic activities can introduce greater amounts of heavy metals to soils and natural waters The anthropogenic inputs that can introduce heavy metals into the environments include the application of commercial fertilizers, liming materials, sewage sludge, manure, animal wastes, soil amendments, pesticides, coal combustion by-products, in addition to auto emissions...

Bioethanol

With Brazil and the USA taking the lead in the production of bioethanol, many other regions of the world are following in their footsteps. The Brazilian bioethanol industry is based on sugarcane and has proven to be very efficiently and economically robust, in particular due to the utilization of the bagasse to generate electricity, which is sufficient to run the mill and leave excess for export to the grid. Although currently the tops and leaves of the sugarcane are not utilized, they have much potential as a biorefinery feedstock. Interestingly, only 1 of the agricultural land in Brazil is used for sugarcane which supplies 50 of the countries fuel requirements. This indicates that Brazil could become a large exporter of bioetha-nol and also has the potential to establish a chemical industry based on sugar, ethanol, or other agricultural by-products. Flex-fuel cars have proven to be a great success in Brazil and motorcycle manufacturers have also started producing such models....

Present RD Progress

It has been proposed recently to use agricultural products for the development of green HMAs. However, to date ideal green raw materials for the replacement of the petroleum-based ingredients such as paraffin wax in a HMA formulation have never been identified. Very recently, we propose to use soybean wax to replace the paraffin wax and further conduct an experimental investigation on its crystalline structure, thermal and mechanical behavior and crystallization morphology by XRD, DSC, NMR, Texture Analyzer and PLM, respectively, with an emphasis on the comparison between soybean wax and paraffin wax. We demonstrate that compared to the paraffin wax, the soybean wax shows a natural difference in molecular and crystalline structures. Such an essential structural difference may result in different performances between a formulated HMA containing the soybean wax and a conventional HMA containing paraffin waxes, but this may also offer a promising advantage to modify the functionalities...

Determinants

Competition between Food Nonfood Crops The equilibrium between food and nonfood crops allows an enhanced use of regional agronomic vocation. In this regard, the CAP reform has already adopted a new orientation by fostering the diversion of farmland toward the use of nonfood purposes, while reducing the direct support for the traditional food crops. However, these policy measures may induce a critical reduction of agricultural land devoted to food crops causing great concerns for the food security issues either at local or global levels.

Natural Attenuation

1 L m2 (i.e. concentration of total hydrocarbons below the legal limit) soil on a plot of agricultural land and monitored natural attenuation of aliphatic hydrocarbons over a period of 400 days. According to the data on soil quality parameters viz. soil microbial mass and dehydrogenase activity, after 200 days original levels were regained. These observations were attributed to the presence of majority of aliphatic hydrocarbons at the surface (up to 10 cm deep) which were volatilized initially after spill and subsequently remaining were degraded by natural microbial flora.

Water Disinfection

Viruses found in surface waters are introduced from three major sources. Viruses of human origin can be traced to untreated or inadequately treated domestic sewage. Runoffs from agricultural land, feedlots and forests introduce viruses from domestic and wild animals and birds. Plant viruses, insect viruses and other forms of life associated with the aquatic environment may also infect the waters.

The Way Forward

Increased legislation on the use of pesticides combined with reduced availability of synthetic pesticides, demands for sustainable agriculture and low-residues have become reality and offer great opportunities for, amongst others, biopesticides. The societal need for biological products is, however, something very different from actual customer demand. The putative desire from society for sustainable products still leaves the important task to manufacturers to decide which product they will develop. Political and societal trends can be strong promotional factors, but they should not be determinative. Specific market driven demand must remain the target for a company.

Push Pull Options

Trap crops can be highly effective at pulling in a pest species in the protection of a main crop. Herbivorous insects respond differentially to host plants of various types as food sources and when presented with a choice will settle on a preferred host. The selection of an appropriate trap crop has to come from the range of hosts that an herbivore uses and ideally be significantly more attractive than the main crop. If there is not a substantial differential in attractiveness, then there is the possibility of using a semiochemical attractant to pull to the trap crop or a deterrent to push away from the main crop. However, the agronomic logistics must also be considered in terms of the feasibility of cultivating two different crops simultaneously and in close proximity to one another. These are tricky issues to work out, and in fact many of the push-pull possibilities that work on paper are not executable in the field because of costs and logistical issues. It is the pragmatic factor...

Impact and Toxicity

Example Fertility Diet

In areas of petroleum industry it was frequently observed that phenols induced genotoxic effects in animals and human (Paisio et al., 2009 and references therein) and depending on the organism tested, the acute toxicity of phenol, estimated by the LC50 value, varied from 6.5 to 1840 mg L-1. For instance, the aquatic toxicity of phenol (LC50) is 12 mg L-1 for Daphnia magna, 178 mg L-1 for Xenopus and 183.70 mg L-1 for Rhinella arenarum embryos (Iurascu et al., 2009 Bernardini et al., 1996 Paisio et al., 2009). Despite the fact that phenol can produce lethal and teratogenic effects on some amphibian species (Paisio et al., 2009), the most important effects reported in short- term animal studies were neurotoxicity, liver and kidney damage, respiratory effects and growth retardation (WHO, 1994). As it could be seen, the high chronic toxicity of phenolic compounds negatively affects aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, interrupting comunity stability. In addition, this hazardous pollutants...

Compounds

Phenol and its chlorinated derivatives enter the environment in bio-wastes produced during the manufacture of industrial and agricultural products such as resins, herbicides, and pesticides. Enzymatic treatment of phenols using peroxidase enzymes is a potentially useful technique for bioremediation of these substances. Oxidation of phenolic compounds by peroxidase generates phenoxy radicals that conjugate together to form water-insoluble oligomers that can then be removed from the enzyme reaction mixture by filtration or sedimentation. A critical limitation in enzymatic phenol removal is deactivation of the enzyme continuous synthesis of active peroxidases in living tissues such as plants offers a possible remedy for this problem. As plant peroxidases are located in the cell walls, they are available for phenol detoxification in plant roots contacting the environment.

Pyrazine herbicides

Nitrogenase Photosystem

Herbicide in many countries since the late 1950s for control of emergent and submerged aquatic weeds (Ritter et al., 2000). According to Massachusetts Department of Agricultural Resources (2010) following weeds are controlled by diquat i) submersed aquatics Ultricularia, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea spp., Najas spp., Myriophyllum spp., Hydrilla verticillata, Potamogeton spp. ii) floating aquatics Salvinia spp., Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia Stratiotes, Lemna spp., Hydrocotyle spp. iii) marginal weeds Typha spp. iv) algae Pithophora spp. , Spyrogyra spp. (filamentous algae). Diquat is stable in neutral and acidic solutions but unstable in alkaline medium. It breaks down by the UV radiation and the degradation increases with pH > 9 (Diaz et al., 2002). It is also biodegraded in water by microorganisms that uses this herbicide as a source of carbon or nitrogen (Petit et al., 1995). Trade names for diquat-dibromide formulations included Desiquat , Midstream , Reglone , and Reglex ....

Wastewater Treatment

These known components of the wastes accumulate in soils in which they are used take-up by plants can introduce them into the food supply, thus limiting long-term application of biosolids to agricultural land. These limits are indicated in Table 11-5. It is notable that European and U.S. standards are quite different. U.S. standards are based on risk estimates to humans based on various pathways for possible ingestion by humans, while

Prometryn

Farmer experience with prometryn is instructive in how a simple change in planting procedures can change results dramatically. In Arizona in the early 1980s, prometryn applied preplant incorporated provided excellent weed control with no apparent damage to sesame. In one year, suddenly there were very poor stands. In analyzing the situation, the farming practices had been to use a double disc opener to open the soil followed by press wheels after the seed was planted to close the gap. Farmers had decided that at times the press wheels did not close the trench resulting in moisture loss and poor germination. A few farmers put a chain on the back of each planter unit to drag soil back over the trench. These were the farmers that were not getting a stand. Basically, the double disc openers were pushing the soil layer with the prometryn to the sides, and allowed the sesame to germinate through the prometryn-treated herbicide zone. With the new farming practice, the soil with prometryn was...

Agricultural Waste

The amount of agricultural waste varies from one country to another according to type of crops and farming land. These waste occupies the agricultural lands for days and weeks until the simple farmers get rid of these waste by either burning it in the fields or storing it in the roofs of their houses the thing that affects the environment and allows fire villages and spread of diseases. The main crops responsible for most of these agricultural wastes are the rice, wheat, cotton, corn, etc. These crops were studied and three agricultural waste recycling techniques were set to be the most suitable for these crops. The first technology is animal fodder that allows the A complex combining these four techniques is very important to guarantee each waste has been most efficiently utilized in producing beneficial outputs like compost, animal food, briquettes and electricity. Having this complex will not only help the utilization of agricultural waste, it will help solving the sewage problem...

Biocontrol Options

Applications of conservation biocontrol extend from prescribing selective insecticides that are least disruptive of natural enemies to large-scale habitat modification that promotes diversity and food web interactivity. Foundational information in support of a particular application of conservation biocontrol is often lacking, as there are few field-based studies from which a consensus approach can be identified. Variation among types and phenologies of crops and the faunistic composition of agroecosystems makes generalizations difficult about which type of cover or perimeter planting will provide the best refuge for natural enemies. For example, a recent study on various plant mixes associated with a cucurbit host crops identified two out of the four companion plantings as hosting a desirable complement of natural enemies relative to harmful pests.91 Whether or not the same findings would apply in a different crop, location or time of year is unknown, but is worthy of...

Phytovolatilization

Phytovolatilization involves the use of plants to take up contaminants from the soil, transform them into volatile form, and ultimately transpire them into the atmosphere. Phytovolatilization occurs as growing trees and other shrubs and herbs take up water, organic and inorganic contaminants. Some of these contaminants can pass through the plants to the leaves and volatilize into the atmosphere at comparatively low concentrations (Mueller et al. 1999). Phytovolatilization has been used primarily for the removal of mercury here, the mercuric ion is transformed into less toxic mercury. The disadvantage of this process is that the mercury released into the atmosphere is likely to be recycled by precipitation and then redeposited into the ecosystem (Henry 2000). Phytovolatilization has been successful for tritium (3H a radioactive isotope of hydrogen), which decays to helium (which is far more stable) with a half-life of about 12 years Dushenkov (2003). Gary Banuelos of the USDS's...

Order Poales

From this family, species from Typha genus are very common not only in Europe but also in other parts of the world. Two species are recommended for phyto-remediation in many countries Typha angustifolia (Demirezen and Aksoy 2004) and T. latifolia (Carranza-Alvarez et al. 2007). Both species very well accumulate heavy metals and can be recommended as an important component of plant community in constructed wetland. Maintained on the bigger area of the shallow water, they not only uptake pollutants but also accumulate enough big biomass for green energy production (Ciria et al. 2005). Usually for producing bigger biomass T. angustifolia is of first choice, but for obtaining greater biodiversity both the species can be cultivated. Typha, similar to Phragmites, colonizes no running water. Both of them are known as allelopathically active against algae however, they become effective when plants cover more than 25 of the water surface. Typha phytoremediates heavy metals and agricultural...

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