How To Start A Pest Control Business

Pest Control Profits

Nate Heller invested years in the pest business and started and sold a number of pest control businesses. He now operates his well-known Pest Control Profits website in which he teaches people exactly how to grow, manage and start and benefit from their very own pest control business. Getting your pest control business up and running can take a lot of time and energy, but it is also not really nearly as complex because many people make it out to be. Essentially, there are 3 actions to starting a pest control business. With Nate Hellers Pest Control Profits Guide youll discover probably the most lucrative business design you can begin along with, the 3 large errors to steer clear of whenever starting away, the huge marketplace that other companies do not focus on, and more. Nate will educate you on the lawful necessities of setting up a business and also the resources and sources to help you manage your own business with ease. One of the most under used forms of a pest management business is joining up with other service businesses. The majority of pest businesses just put an ad in the yellow pages as well as watch for calls to come in. In this day time within age, if that is your own just marketing strategy, it wont be well before you are left out through the competition. More here...

Pest Control Profits Overview


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Trends in the use of pesticides for vector and public health pest control programmes in the WHO Regions

Chemical control is the most widely practised method for vector and pest control in the Region. However, appropriate pesticide use is hampered, inter alia, by the lack of capacity, coordinated mechanisms and funding for the registration, purchase, application and quality control of products absence of effective systems for monitoring use and lack of implementation of existing rules and regulations. Pest control by municipalities and at household level accounts for a significant proportion of the overall use of pesticides.

Selection of a Microbial Pest Control Agent

Abstract From a comparison between academic research and industrial research with regard to the finding and the development of a microbial pest control agent, it is concluded that there is a need for well-defined selection criteria and a complete process description for the entire development of a microbial pest control product. This chapter discusses the exploratory phase of finding a new microbial pest control agent, and the actual screening phase of species and strains of collected insect pathogens, potentially bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, and entomopathogenic nematodes. Three decisive selection criteria are identified for a commercial microbial insecticide mortality, production efficiency, and safety. Relevant factors in the screening process related to mortality are dose rate, mode of action, speed of kill, host range, sensitivity to abiotic factors, and persistence. Second, the possibility of mass production with high yields is a critical criterion. Third, safety to...

Different Approaches in Finding a New Pest Control Agent

Similar to the field of biocontrol with arthropods, an evaluation approach for insect pathogens as biocontrol agents has only been briefly presented in the literature by several authors. But few authors described the entire process of finding a new microbial control agent and its development into a successful commercial product. Burges (1981a) described three approaches to the discovery and development of a microbial pest control agent (MPCA) According to Burges the third approach has been the least successful, but one that could be further developed for integrated pest control programmes which have gaps where particular pests are difficult to control when broad-spectrum chemicals are no longer used. Burges (1981a) clearly recognized all the prerequisites for the development of a microbial pest control agent. He realized that market size and competitiveness are vital and that important other commercial considerations include wide host spectrum, long shelf-life and production...

Selection Criteria for a Microbial Pest Control Agent 31 The Most Important Selection Criteria

Which criteria are the most important in a screening study of a microbial pest control agent In order to be able to answer this question, it is necessary to have in mind the foreseen application of the pathogen. Here we are selecting for a biocontrol agent that will be used in an inundative approach, an application, usually by spraying, that is meant to give a high mortality of the pest. It would be different when we want to apply a pathogen for long term control, as in classical biological control or for one seasonal application leading to an epizootic in the field. The decisive criteria for a pathogen that will be developed into a commercial bio-insecticide and that will be used for inundative application are

Mass Production and Product Development of a Microbial Pest Control Agent

Abstract The feasibility of economic mass production of the selected strain and the development of a stable product are key factors to a successful microbial pest control product. Two phases are distinguished, the development of the production process, and the development of the product, including formulation, packaging and field testing. The critical technical and economic factors are identified and evaluated for the four types of pathogens. Various production systems are reviewed. Bacteria, fungi and entomopathogenic nematodes are generally produced in vitro. Baculoviruses must be produced in vivo. Advantages and disadvantages in terms of costs, manageability and versatility are provided for each production system. The development of a stable product that is able to deliver effective pest control requires a formulation. The four main objectives in formulation are to stabilize the propagules to make a user-friendly product to protect the propagule, once applied and to minimize risks...

Implementation of a Microbial Pest Control Product in an Integrated Pest Management Programme

Abstract Key factors to cost-effective implementation of a microbial pest control product are application strategy, compatibility, and knowledge transfer to the user. This requires the design of a comprehensive integrated pest management programme in which the microbial pest control product is to be incorporated. The first element is an optimal application strategy per targeted pest and cropping system. Determinative parameters such as dosage and spray volume are discussed as well as factors that influence these parameters such as the tritrophic plant-host-pathogen relationship. The second element is the incorporation of the microbial pest control product in an IPM system. Compatibility with chemical pesticides and with beneficial organisms must be established and critical aspects are mentioned for each type of pathogen. Microbial pest control products and natural enemies are often simultaneously used in IPM systems to enhance control. Synergistic, additive and negative interactions...

Critical Factors in the Successful Commercialization of Microbial Pest Control Products

Abstract Commercialization is the final and most difficult step in the development and the introduction to the market of a microbial pest control product. The critical factors that determine success or failure are identified for a company as well as for a product, and recommendations are provided that will facilitate success. The history of the biopesticide industry will be highlighted. Currently available products will be presented, as well as the biopesticide markets in Europe and the Netherlands. The main crops in which biopesticides are used are presented as well as the most successful products. Profitability of products in relation to their market size will be analyzed. Critical success and failure factors for a biopesticide company and for a microbial pest control product are analyzed, and recommendations will be provided on essential factors that need to be considered. Tools will be provided to facilitate decision-making in the commercialization process. Company profiles will...

Registration of Microbial Pest Control Agents and Products and Other Related Regulations

Abstract Several regulations apply to the handling and the use of microbial pest control agents. Microorganisms used for control of pests are subject to registration as a plant protection product. The history of the development of data requirements for entomopathogens is presented. Current registration requirements are reviewed, particularly for the European Union. For several topics, data requirements are unclear or even lacking procedures are both long and expensive. Initiatives to ameliorate these impediments are reviewed. The EU project REBECA provided recommendations for improvement of procedures as well for data requirements. The OECD BioPesticides Steering Group continues this work and is developing guidance for several data requirements issues. A general estimate of costs for the generation of a registration dossier is provided. Various regulations apply to microbial pest control agents (MPCAs) and products (MPCPs). The person responsible for handling these organisms in any...

Microbial Pest Control Agents and Products

- microbial pest control agent (MPCA) ( active substance) a microorganism (bacterium, alga, fungus, protozoan, virus, mycoplasma, rickettsia) and any associated metabolites, to which the effects of pest control are attributed - microbial pest control product (MPCP) ( microbial plant protection product) a product containing a MPCA that is registered or labeled with instructions for direct use or application for pest control purposes. The definition applies to, but is not limited to, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses and viroids (EPA 2007). The term microbial pest control agents (MPCA) is used in the data requirements, the term microbial pest control product (MPCP) is not used, however. I will use the term Microbial Pest Control Agent (MPCA). The term MPCA includes microorganisms such as algae, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, yeasts, viruses and viroids, and any associated metabolites that are involved in the mode of action. I also include entomopathogenic nematodes under this definition...

The Historical Development of Biopesticide Companies and Microbial Pest Control Products

The development of a biopesticide company and a microbial pest control product are inextricably linked. The development of a novel product to solve a pest problem, or a fortuitous discovery that potentially leads to an innovative product could lead to the establishment of a new company, or a new department in an existing company. Potential products that can be commercialized will be the incentive. In the early days of this industry, research ideas from public research generally motivated committed persons to initiate product development and commercialization, and often lead to the establishment of a company. The early steps in applied insect pathology leading to the development of microbial insecticides have been reviewed by Lord (2005). He highlighted the discovery and the initial use of entomopathogenic bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and viruses, and the commercialization of the first products around the world. His review predominantly focussed on the research side of microbial insect...

Biochemical Methods Of Insect Control

The development of insect resistance has been an important factor prompting the search for methods of insect control that are not totally dependent on the use of pesticides. These methods are outlined briefly because their adoption by farmers will help both to minimize the amounts of synthetic pesticides in the environment and to slow the development of resistant strains of insects. It should be noted that the majority of U.S. farmers use synthetic pesticides, but the amounts used per acre have decreased as biological methods of control are used increasingly in conjunction with the application of synthetic pesticides. Pheromones have been used in at least four different approaches to insect control. Use of Pheromones in Insect Control 4. To attract (aggregate) or disperse both males and females. Some phero-mones attract both sexes to a particular area, resulting in a population large-enough to form colonies. This was observed with beetles, which require a certain number of...

Microbial Pest Control Products

Numerous microbial pest control products for control of arthropod pests have been developed in the past and are developed at present. In theory, they offer one of the most sustainable and ecologically acceptable means of crop protection for modern agriculture. Generally, they are intended to replace synthetic chemical pesticides as our society requires sustainable pest control solutions that are safe to humans and to the environment. Research on new biocontrol agents, frequently initiated by academic scientists, promises elegant solutions. Companies translate these research results into the development of a commercial product. Many of these new products, however, do not become successful in the market, and companies fail to achieve a profitable business. Annual sales of microbial pesticides are reported to be 750 million globally, amounting only to 2.5 of the chemical market (Evans 2008). An imperative question is whether it is possible to identify the obstacles and constraints to the...

Use of Fungi under Inoculative and Classical Biological Control Strategies

Pest control, normally also an exotic pest. This strategy is based on the hypothesis that the exotic pest is efficiently controlled by one or several natural enemies in its place of origin. Therefore, by introducing such a natural enemy (e.g. a fungus), it will spread out by itself in the pest population, causing severe epizootics and the depletion of the pest density. It is also expected that no further releases of the fungus are required. Before the release of the exotic fungus, a series of safety tests are required to minimize the possibility of any damaging effects on non-target species.

Future Perspectives on the Use of Microbial Insecticides

As mentioned in the introduction, there is an increased concern of society regarding the use of chemical insecticides for insect control in agriculture and for vectors of important human diseases, due to the environmental and health problems these chemicals can cause.1 Nevertheless, there is a great dependence on chemical insecticides on insect control due to their proven efficacy. The use of environmental friendly microbial insecticides depends greatly on enhancing their efficacy in field conditions and lowering their production costs. In the case of bacterial toxins, their expression in transgenic crops has enhanced their efficacy in the field resulting in a lower use of chemical insecticides. For the acceptance of microbial insecticides as spray or wettable formulations, however, there is still much to be done to produce microbial insecticides that show a similar efficacies and production costs as their chemical counterparts.

Modern Agriculture and Pest Forcing 931 The Pesticide Connection

The pattern of pesticide-induced disasters depicted by Smith22 and the supporting examples he presented were reiterated numerous times by various authors.25 29 These crisis-in-cotton examples came to represent the paradigm for pest control failures in general where pesticides were involved. It was not necessary that a major crop failure occur, only that unsatisfactory control leading to economic damage be realized that, more often than not, would elicit an explanation that pesticides were to blame for the resistance they had caused in the target population, or that natural enemies that had been eliminated had led to a resurgence of the target pest or an increase in secondary pests. While well-documented examples exist for each one of these phenomena, specific evidence in the vast majority of cases was rarely presented. For example, speculation made about the increased pest status of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci stated Once whiteflies are established in an area, we believe that the...

Preparation of Organophosphorus Insecticides

Malathion 42, the most commonly used organophosphate insecticide119 in the USA, is a persistent general-purpose insecticide. It is used in household, home garden, vegetable and fruit insect control, as well as in the control of insects affecting public health (e.g. flies, mosquitoes120 and lice). Malathion is also sprayed, aerially, over cities, suburbs and farmland to control mosquitoes and Mediterranean fruit flies.121 As a result of the emergence of pyrethroid-resistant head lice, malathion (0.5 formulation) has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of pediculosis.122,123 However, oral ivermectin has been shown to be more efficient than malathion lotion for difficult-to-treat head lice.124 Although malathion itself is of low toxicity, absorption or ingestion into the human body readily results in its metabolization to malaoxon, via oxidation of the P S moiety to P O, which is substantially (61 times) more toxic.125 High levels of malathion metabolites in children's urine seem...

Entomopathogenic Fungi

Reports of insects affected by pathogens have been recorded as far back as 4700 years ago. It was in the 18th century, however, that the first fungus, a species of Cordyceps, was actually identified and described, due to its large size and ease of visualization. Muscardines were reported earlier, but their association with a fungus was unknown, until the development of the microscope. A fungus was also the first microorganism to be associated with the development of a disease. During the early 19th century, the Italian Agostino Bassi studied the white muscardine on the silkworm larvae. His detailed studies clearly proved that this fungus, later known as Beauveria bassiana, caused an infective disease on the silkworms, and he even suggested the use of the fungus as an insect control agent. All this happened many years earlier than the development of the germ theory of disease by Louis Pasteur. It was also a fungus that was the first entomopathogen to be used in the field to control an...

Neonicotinoids as Resistance Management Tools

Thiacloprid shows excellent control of resistant beetles, whereas in most parts of the pyrethroid-treated crop, flowering was prevented due to pollen beetle feeding. The example shown demonstrates that neonicotinoids will remain important chemical options for pest control and management in the future.

Use In Europe As An Extract Of Sophora Flavescens Bioinsecticides

RSC Green Chemistry No. 11 Green Trends in Insect Control At the same time, interest in the chemistry of plant secondary metabolites and their ecological roles blossomed, spawning a voluminous scientific literature on the effects of plant allelochemicals on insects that is growing exponentially at present. For example, according to the Web of Science database, a search for plant extract and insecticidal activity'' in mid-2010 generated a list of 62 journal papers over the five year interval from 2005-2009 searching for essential oils and insecticidal activity'' yielded 115 papers over the same interval ( 23 papers per year), and the key words botanical insecticide yielded 116 papers.4 Much of the prior research in this field has been reviewed extensively, in volumes such as Insecticides of Plant Origin,5 Phytochemicals for Pest Control,6 Botanical Pesticides in Agriculture,7 Phytochemical Biopesticides8 and Biopesticides of Plant Origin.9 Given the effort and resources expended in...


In 1998, Colombia was the first country to register methoxyfenozide for lepi-dopteran pest control in rice and corn. Currently, it is registered in 22 countries on four continents for use in these crops. The main row crops where methoxy-fenozide is used include corn, milo sorghum, rice, sweet corn and wheat, to control pests such as Agrotis spp. Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) rice ear-cutting caterpillar, Mythimna separata (Walker) South American white borer, Rupella albinella (Cramer) fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) and yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) (see Table 6.18).


In 1999, Israel was the first country to register methoxyfenozide for lepi-dopteran pest control in alfalfa. Currently, this active ingredient is also registered in South Arabia and the US for use in forage crops to control pests such as Agrotis spp. alfalfa looper, Autographa californica (Speyer) armyworm, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth) and Spodoptera spp., among others (see Table 6.20).

The Concept of Green

The inordinate dependency on pesticides from the 1950s onwards tended to relegate many age-old cultural and biological control tactics to minimal roles in pest management. The rapid and continuous expansion of the pesticide market over succeeding decades helped to create a perpetual demand for chemical control. Despite frequent problems of resistance and secondary pest outbreaks, a new compound always seemed to become available for combating recalcitrant pests. A number of field entomologists recognized the dire warning signs that had become increasingly apparent in crop production where pesticides were being overused.13 15 Acting on this concern, Stern et al.16 developed the integrated control concept that advocated allowing natural control to operate up to a threshold level where crop injury could occur, and only then apply an insecticide to reduce the pest population and avoid economic damage. However, it was the contribution of a non-entomologist, Rachel Carson, through her book...

Push Pull Options

Habitat manipulation is another means of employing push-pull strategies to manage pests and in a certain sense can be viewed as a form of cultural control. Greater diversity of plant types in cropping systems using intercropping techniques and other methods often enhances food web complexity and improves biological control.93,94 Another benefit of diverse plant stands may be an increase in plant volatiles that act to push and or pull various pest and beneficial species. The influence of plant volatiles on insect plant interactions has only recently begun to be explored but may result in the identification of plant semiochemicals that enhance pest control when deployed effectively. One prominent example has been the role that methyl salicylate plays in attracting

Biocontrol Options

Applications of conservation biocontrol extend from prescribing selective insecticides that are least disruptive of natural enemies to large-scale habitat modification that promotes diversity and food web interactivity. Foundational information in support of a particular application of conservation biocontrol is often lacking, as there are few field-based studies from which a consensus approach can be identified. Variation among types and phenologies of crops and the faunistic composition of agroecosystems makes generalizations difficult about which type of cover or perimeter planting will provide the best refuge for natural enemies. For example, a recent study on various plant mixes associated with a cucurbit host crops identified two out of the four companion plantings as hosting a desirable complement of natural enemies relative to harmful pests.91 Whether or not the same findings would apply in a different crop, location or time of year is unknown, but is worthy of...

Wastewater And Water Pollution Control

Historically, the major concern with regard to pollution of surface waters was with their oxygen resources as described. However, in recent decades, an increasing concern is the pollution of surface waters and groundwaters with other pollutants of primarily industrial or agricultural origin. During the past half century, many new chemicals have been produced for agricultural purposes. Some of them are used for weed control, others for pest control. There has also been a dramatic increase in the application of nitrogen fertilizers. Residues of these materials are often carried to watercourses during periods of heavy rainfall and have had serious effects upon the biota of streams. A great deal of research by chemists and biologists has demonstrated which of the materials have been most damaging to the environment, and many products have been outlawed. Continuing studies will be needed, but hopefully new products will be more environmentally friendly and will be kept from general use...

General Introduction and Outline

Abstract Microbial pesticides have been developed for a 100 years, but many of these crop protection products have not been successful in the market. The history of microbial pest control products is summarized, the companies involved are reviewed, and the reasons for success and failure are briefly described. The need for a model that facilitates the development and commercialization of these products is recognized. The entomopathogenic bacteria, fungi, viruses and nematodes utilized as biocontrol agents are briefly introduced. For the first time, a rational and structured roadmap will be designed that will increase the chances of achieving success with microbial pest control products. Finally, this chapter presents an outline of this book. Terminology and definitions used are provided in the Appendix for products, methods of control, and control strategies.

The Early History of Microbial Control

Easy to be prepared, not obnoxious to man or domestic animals, and if successful a benefit to mankind (Steinhaus 1956). This statement can probably be seen as the first conceptual idea of the development of a microbial pest control product including biological, technical, economical and safety-related considerations. All these aspects then considered by Hagen are still relevant today for the development of a biopesticide.

The Rise and Struggle of the Biopesticide Industry

The research on insect pathogens has grown extensively the last four decades and the literature on insect pathogens and on their potential as microbial control agents is vast. During this period, many companies have employed activities with biopesticides and numerous products have been developed, registered, and introduced on the market. The use of biopesticides is constantly increasing. However, their overall use is merely a few percent of the total worldwide use of plant protection products. Many products have not been successful, and numerous companies have failed. According to Lisansky (CPL 2006) over four hundred companies have been active at different times with commercialization of microbial pesticides, and the majority of these companies has left the field of biopesticides. Gelernter (2005) provided an overview of these commercial developments within the biopesticide industry from 1950 to 2005. The challenges that entrepreneurs face when they try to develop and commercialize...

Insect Pathogens as Microbial Control Agents

Four groups of microbial pathogens are typically found in insects bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa. Their biological properties determine their utility as agents for the control of insects (Federici 1999). In addition to these microorganisms, ento-mopathogenic nematodes will be treated because many of the same principles apply to the use of these organisms as biocontrol agents in the form of a microbial pest control product. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and those control products based on GMOs are not reviewed and discussed, although there are GMO-based microbial pest control products (MPCPs) developed and available. A small number of MPCPs with genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis strains are approved in the USA. Genetically modified plants incorporated with Bt genes are also available on the market. Sometimes these are also categorized as biopesticides. GMO-based biopesticides are at present not allowed in Europe, and even when allowed, registration would be...

Protozoa and Microsporidia

Protozoa consists of a large and diverse group of unicellular microorganisms. Some protozoans are parasitic on insects and cause chronic diseases. Epizootics cause a decline in insect populations in nature and this offers potential to use them as biocontrol agents, particularly members of the Microsporidia. They are, however, no longer grouped with Protozoa. Hibbett et al. (2007) reclassified Microsporidia as a phylum within the kingdom of Fungi. Thirteen thousand Microsporidia have been described. A brief overview of entomopathogenic microsporidia, their biology and ecology in relation to their potential as microbial insecticides is provided by Solter and Becnel (2007). Only one microsporidium has been developed for use as an insecticide Nosema locustae, for control of grasshoppers. A few products based on this microorganism have been registered in the USA. Another species, Vairimorpha necatrix, has been developed for control of Lepidopteran pests, but was never commercialized...

Peanut production systems

Mechanized production systems utilize a wide range of agrochemicals to manage peanut growth and development and minimize the impact of pests on peanut yield and quality (Lynch and Mack, 1995 Sherwood et al., 1995 Wilcut et al., 1995). Pests that can potentially impact peanut are diverse (Table 1). Yield loss from weed interference or from damage caused by insects, diseases, and nematodes can be substantial in peanut if pest control strategies are not implemented in a timely manner.

Agrochemicals used in peanut

Presence of biotic and abiotic stresses often occur simultaneously during the peanut growing season, and timing of application for many agrochemicals overlap (Table 3). Practitioners prefer limiting the number of trips across fields in order to increase efficiency of managing peanut. This approach is preferable because of convenience, savings in time, reduced application costs, and freeing labor for other operations. Additionally, applying multiple pesticides with different modes of action is an important resistance management strategy for pests (Brandenburg, 2010 Jordan, 2010 Shew, 2010). This approach is feasible as long as adverse interactions, primary increased crop injury or decreased pest control, do not occur. Defining interactions among agrochemicals is important in assisting growers and their advisors as they make decisions on co-application of these products.

Biocontrol Strategies

Biopesticides are often used within IPM systems, and can be important pest control tools in such systems. I will use the definition of IPM as provided by van Lenteren (1993) Integrated Pest Management is a durable, environmentally and economically justifiable system in which damage caused by pests, diseases and weeds is prevented through the use of natural factors which limit the population growth of these organisms, if needed, supplemented with appropriate control measures.

Coapplication of multiple components

The previous discussion focused on co-applications that have only two components. However, there is considerable interest in compatibility of three or more pesticides, micronutrients, adjuvants, or plant growth regulators and their impact on pest control and crop management. With respect to weed control, efficacy of clethodim, sethoxydim, and 2,4-DB were compared when these herbicides were applied alone or with fungicides and insecticides (Jordan et al., 2003a Lancaster et al., 2005a 2005b). Although results often supported previous findings with components from two groups of pesticides, no clear relationships were established with respect to combinations of three or more pesticides (Lancaster et al., 2005a 2005b). More recently, research is being conducted to compare herbicide efficacy with mixtures containing various levels of fungicide, insecticide, micronutrient, or adjuvant (Chahal et al., 2009a 2009b).

The Description of the Problem

In this exploratory phase, it is essential to make a detailed characterization of the problem or opportunity. What exactly is the problem and what is the scale of the problem For pest control in greenhouse crops we need answers to the following questions which arthropod pest is it in which crops does it occur in what country region at what time of year is the problem expected to increase or decrease in the near future what are the short term solutions, either available or being developed by other biocontrol companies or the chemical industry, or even by the seed-producing industry (are there new tolerant or resistant cultivars) what are the acceptable costs for a solution for the grower will it become an affordable product. Finally, an impression of the potential market should be developed. If possible the expected solutions should be described briefly so it is understood where the project is going. The project plan should also include evaluation and decision moments, i.e. points of...

Mass Production and Downstream Processing

Table 3.2 Economic feasibility of mass-production methods for microbial pest control agents (SSF solid state fermentation LSF liquid state fermentation) Table 3.2 Economic feasibility of mass-production methods for microbial pest control agents (SSF solid state fermentation LSF liquid state fermentation)

Environmental Degradation

The discovery of the general toxicity of DDT to insects in the 1940s and its apparent lack of toxicity to other life-forms suggested that the problem of insect control had been solved. But by 1947, it was not possible to control flies without a considerable increase in both the amount of DDT used and the number of sprayings. This approach increased the environmental burden of DDT markedly. Eventually DDT ceased to be a useful control agent for flies, mosquitoes, and many agricultural pests. Often the DDT would knock down flies, which would stagger around for a while as if drunk, and then suddenly fly away again. It was later discovered that the survivors had an enzyme, named DDT dehydrochlorinase, that catalyzes the loss of HCl from DDT to form the nontoxic DDE. Presumably the drunken behavior occurred during the few minutes needed for the enzyme to deactivate the DDT so that it could no longer disrupt nerve impulses in the fly. The problem of insect resistance is a general one, which...

History of the Biopesticide Industry

Numerous enterprises have been active in the field of biopesticide production and marketing. Lisansky (CPL 2006a) listed nearly four hundred companies worldwide which manufactured and or marketed biopesticides (broad definition) between 1980 and 2006. The companies involved in the early period of biopesticides and some of their histories have been presented in papers of Lisansky (1997), Lisansky and Coombs (1994), Rodgers (1993), Starnes et al. (1993), Gelernter (2005), and for nematodes, in papers of Georgis (2002) and Ehlers (2007). More than 200 companies have been active in the last two decades in this field (Harwood et al. 2007) a considerable number remains active to date. In Europe eighty-two manufacturers were identified, and their activities and products have been described in The Biopesticide Companies of Europe (CPL 2006b). The earlier edition of this report (2002) listed just twenty companies. Many different types of companies such as companies primarily active in the...

Currently Active Biopesticide Manufacturers

An accurate picture of the currently active biopesticide manufacturers is very difficult to provide. Every year, new ones enter this field and others leave. Acquisitions of products and whole companies occur frequently. The status of companies in North America and Western Europe is well known, but for the rest of the world it is impossible to provide reliable information. There are two industrial associations of the biopesticide industry. The global International Biocontrol Manufacturers Association (IBMA), founded in 1995, has about hundred sixty members from all over the world. In Europe, approximately thirty members are producers of microbial pesticides. The Biopesticide Industry Alliance (BPIA) in the USA has more than fifty members, of which about ten produce microbial pesticides. Other members of these associations have activities in the field of macrobial pest control products, pheromones, and natural or biochemical plant protection products. Table 7.1 European manufacturers of...

How to Predict Success of a Microbial Pesticide

A pathway can be developed that substantially increases the chance to achieve a successful microbial pest control product. But there is no guarantee. Each product and each company will face all the challenges from idea to launch to repeated sales. The steps along that pathway have been treated in this book, and the focus should be on developing an efficacious product that can compete on price with other crop protection means. An ideal biopesticide does not exist and the limitations must be known and accepted, and communicated in the market. How the product is marketed is pivotal to its success. But the product must demonstrate a number of key characteristics that convinces not only users, but also marketing and salespeople, including distributors and pest control advisers. Key components of a successful product are reliable and consistent field performance, a balanced cost price-effectiveness that can compete with chemicals, high and stable quality, user-friendliness, availability at...

Distribution and Sale Strategies 91 Various Models for Distribution

There are several options for selling biopesticides. The choices that can be made depend on the size and nature of the manufacturer. A large agrochemical company may use its own outlets for distribution. A small biopesticide company generally does not have its own distribution organization, and needs to assign other companies as their distributors. The same is true for manufacturers outside agriculture, such as pharmaceutical companies. Few biopesticide companies have developed their own distribution organization. Examples are Koppert and Intrachem, but both have more activities next to microbial pesticides that justify such an organization. The advantage is that subsidiaries are committed to their own products while others may be less so. Microbial pest control products require more attention and user education than chemical products do, and this demands a versatile and flexible distributor. Big agrochemical distributors may have a better understanding of the markets in general, but...

The Role of a Distributor

Few authors have discussed the role of distribution in the success of biopesticides. But this aspect of the use of biopesticides should not be underestimated. The perception of biopesticides can be a barrier to the adoption of such products, and the role of distributors and pest control advisors is pivotal for a successful biopesticide (Marrone 2007). A new product is typically tried on a small scale on the grower's premises under supervision of the distributor's advisor, and the relationship between

Roadmap to Success and Future Perspective

Abstract The development of a microbial pest control product requires a structured project plan. The building blocks of the entire process are identified and essential aspects highlighted. The roadmap to successful development and commercialization of a microbial pest control product is amply illustrated in newly designed flow diagrams. Diagrams are presented for the screening phase, the product development phase, and the implementation phase. Relevant input criteria and requirements are provided. Output information leads to consecutive steps and go no go-decisions. A future perspective on the biopesticide market is presented with limiting and promoting factors and trends. The most important drivers are concerns about food safety and the environment, new research and technology, changes in the regulatory climate, and the arrival of exotic and invasive pests. The biopesticide industry has reached a level of maturity and critical mass that forms a solid base for further expansion. The...

The Active Ingredients of Herbicides and Pesticides

The modern era of pest control by chemicals began by the development of synthetic organic chemical industry. The original and pure form of a pesticide is formulated to technical grade materials that can be used directly. They are amenable to storage, handling and application, and can be used in an effectively and safely manner. They are supplied in many forms like liquid sprays, powders and dusts, oil solutions and aerosols etc. There are several classes of herbicides and pesticides but only few examples have been outlined here.

Identification of Selection Criteria

In the first phase of the project the objectives must be established (Chapter 2). It must become clear what type of product will be developed, against which pest(s), and in which cropping system(s). An elaborate description of the pest problem provides direction to the search for a microbial pest control agent. The collection of entomopathogenic pathogens is the first concrete step in the process, followed by a screening process to select the best candidate strain(s). The first level of selection is the type of pathogen bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa and entomopathogenic nematodes. The second level of selection is at the species and strain level. Biological features of a potential agent are crucial, and these need to be evaluated in this selection phase along with economic factors. I consider relevant selection criteria for a commercial MPCA to be mortality, production efficiency, and safety. Favourable features related to mortality and economics are a low LC50 dose, a broad host...

Critical Parameters in Product Development

Formulation research is required for the development of a stable product that delivers effective pest control. Formulation is linked with the production system, the medium composition, and the down-stream process. Formulation serves four functions stability of the propagules, effective delivery, on site protection of the propagules, and safety for the applicator. These four functions need to be investigated and can be optimized by manipulation of process parameters in the production phase as well as in the down-stream phase. Medium composition influences the quality of the propagules, and co-formulants can protect the propagules and improve other product properties. Formulation can improve efficacy, shelf-life, and user-friendliness of the product. Solutions for the four functions are not always compatible and the final formulation is a compromise between all these demands. Formulation is specific to a certain type of pathogen (Table 3.5) and its specific use, so it demands a case by...

Implementation in an IPM System

The implementation strategy of the product in an IPM programme is a basic element of the use of any MPCP (Chapter 6). The positioning of a product implies a good understanding of all components of an IPM system and their interactions with the new product, in any given cropping system. This phase requires a considerable amount of research which should be conducted before market launch. I have experienced that many companies underestimated or even neglected this part of product development. The application strategy, compatibility, and knowledge transfer to the user are key factors for a cost-effective implementation of a microbial pest control product, and are determinative for rapid product adoption. The second element is the incorporation of the microbial pest control product in an IPM system. For proper positioning in an IPM system many interactions have to be identified and investigated, but often, only limited research is conducted due to I suggest the study of alternate and...

Key Success and Failure Factors in the Commercialization Process

Commercialization is the final and most difficult step in the development and the introduction in the market of a microbial pest control product (Chapter 7). This is not just the case for bio-insecticides, but also for microbials for control of diseases, weeds, and postharvest pest and diseases. I estimate that the global biopesticide market is approximately 500- 700 million in 2009 while the total pesticide market was about 40 billion (CropLife 2009). Biopesticides are predominantly used in protected crops, orchards, forestry, and for vector control use in agricultural crops is just beginning. Bacillus thuringiensis products are the most successful. My estimate is that commercialization of baculoviruses and EPNs is a profitable business for the manufacturers. Sales of both groups are expanding. Business in entomopathogenic

Environmental Fate of Herbicides and Pesticides

When the contamination crosses considerable measurable threshold, it damages biological communities at single organism or population level, then environmental pollution may occur (Moriarity 1983). It is a human action capable to make modifications to the properties of environment or availability and quality of resources over a given space and timeframe and is called as environmental contamination (Bacci 1994). Unfortunately, the extensive reliance on herbicides and pesticides in recent agricultural system is increasing. Since, they are widely used for pest control in corps livestock, so their behavior in the environment is vitally important. The parameters like type nature of chemical and soil, climate, number of pesticide application (single or multiple) are responsible for shelf life of a pesticide. Environmentally suitable chemical pest control adoption strategies need knowledge of the fate and behavior of pesticides.

Pest Resistance to Herbicides and Pesticides

With the advancement in performance of pesticides in environmental and awareness for their toxicity, improvements have been made to pest management technologies. There is need for continuous development of better and safer technologies for pest management rather than the application of wide spread pesticides. Thus, integrated pest management (IPM) is the approach which may come together with different methods putting emphasis on prevention. This may be the most successful approach for pest control. Selectivity of pesticides to beneficial arthropods is a key for the implementation of IPM program. Fungicides and herbicides are compatible with IPM programs. For foliar insecticides, some treatments are required to be used carefully according to the selectivity, but for soil insecticide treatments, their toxicity raise the question regarding their residues to the soil and ground water, so it is important to use them with proper management in IPM programs in vegetables and there is need of...

The WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme

WHOPES functions in close collaboration with national disease and pest control programmes and national pesticide registration authorities, many international and regional organizations and institutions concerned with pesticide management, legislation and regulation, research institutions and with industry.

Haloorganics And Pesticides

We begin the chapter with a discussion of the reactivity of haloorganics under environmental conditions. The chemistry and environmental problems due to several types of haloorganic, which are now or have been an environmental problem, are considered. It is not possible to discuss every type of commercial haloorganic, but the goal is to provide sufficient breadth of coverage to permit the reader (1) to estimate the relative reactivity of these and other haloorganics under environmental conditions, (2) to understand the scope of their effect on the environment, and (3) to understand how these environmental problems are currently being addressed. Because many chloroorganics are pesticides, the chapter includes a discussion of general pesticides and other methods of pest control.

Biological Control and Microbial Control

I will use the terminology with regard to biological control as proposed by Eilenberg et al. (2001). The term biological control will be used interchangeably with bio-control as this is widely accepted. Biological control is defined by Eilenberg et al. (2001) as the use of living organisms to suppress the population density or impact of a specific pest organism, making it less abundant or less damaging than it would otherwise be. The authors emphasized the use of living organisms, and include viruses. They excluded the use of genes and metabolites when used alone. Any associated metabolites, however, to which the effects of pest control are (partly) attributed, such as the Bt toxins, should be inclusive in this definition. In that case, I agree with this definition and will follow it. The term microbial control is used to describe the use of living microorganisms as biological control agents, and is considered a sub-set of biological control. The term microbial control was first used...

Total Developmental Costs

The most wanted information for decision-makers in companies who contemplate the development of a new microbial pest control products is what are the total costs There is no simple straightforward answer to this question, but an indication must be provided for a sound business decision. Each case is unique, but it is possible to provide a general figure for a certain type of entomopathogen and its foreseen purpose. For each company, the investment will be different since expertise, facilities and equipment, R & D, and presence in the market will be unique too. Many authors have attempted to come up with an indication of the total costs for various kinds of microbial pest control products. The difficulty with many of these estimates is the failure to clearly describe which expenses are included in the amount reported. Are registration expenses counted, and if so, to what extent are in-house expenses, contract research expenses, and registration costs in various countries included I...

Biological Control References

Commercial aspects of biological pest control in greenhouses. In R. Albajes, M.L. Gullino, J.C. van Lenteren, Y. Elad (eds), Integrated pest and disease management in greenhouse crops. Kluwer, Dordrecht. pp. 310-318. Burges, H.D., June, 2001. Bacillus thuringiensis in pest control. Pesticide Outlook 12 90-97. Georgis, R., A.M. Koppenh fer, L.A. Lacey, G. B lair, L.W. Duncan, P.S. Grewal, M. Samish, L. Tan, P. Torr, and R.W.H.M. van Tol, 2006. Successes and failures in the use of parasitic nematodes for pest control. Biol. Control 38 103-123. Inceoglu, A.B., S.G. Kamita, A.C. Hinton, Q. Huang, T.F. Severson, K. Kang, and B.D. Hammock, 2001. Recombinant baculoviruses for insect control. Pest Manag. Sci. 57 981-987. Lisansky, S.G., 1985. Production and commercialization of pathogens. In N.W. Hussey, N. Scopes (eds), Biological pest control. The glasshouse experience. Blanford Press, Poole. pp. 210-218. Phytopathol. 39 103-133. Pava-Ripoll, M., F.J. Posada, B. Momen,...

Characteristic Features of the Persistent Organic Compounds

Organochlorine pesticides are persistent, bioaccumulative in fatty tissues and are found distributed in different compartments in marine environments as a result of transfer by wind from long distances and from domestic and industrial discharges. They are effective pest control chemicals, used in agriculture and public health activities (malaria eradication, etc.) worldwide for the past several decades and are still in use in many developing countries. Though complete ban on DDTs was imposed in many developed nations, in India it was banned only for agricultural use, but still used for malaria control, and HCH is also not completely banned (still used for agriculture). While the bulk of HCH used today is in the form of the I isomer of the compound, there is concern that this isomer can be transformed into other isomers that exhibit greater persistence and have potentially more deleterious effects on humans and wildlife (Walker et al. 1999) .

Quality Control

Abstract Quality control can de divided in production control, process control, and product control. The first two refer to internal quality control of the production of a microbial pest control product, and ensure a stable production process with a minimum of failures. Product control refers to the quality of the final product that leaves the factory and which needs to perform according to registration and customer satisfaction requirements. Products must meet product specifications, which are set by the manufacturer, until the end of the claimed shelf-life. Registration requirements in terms of quality control are reviewed. Complete quality control procedures and data for validation must be established, although there are no officially recognized criteria. Practical challenges in quality control procedures are reviewed per type of pathogen. Natural variation makes efficacy testing via bio-assays difficult, and setting an internal standard is required. Recommendations for...

Enzymes Of Entomopathogenic Fungi And Bacteria For The Biocontrol Of Insect Pests

Entomopathogenic fungi (mycoinsecticides) are gaining increasing attention as environmentally friendly insect control agents. Although over 750 species have been reported to infect insects, few have received serious consideration as potential commercial candidates. The entomopathogenic deuteromycetes fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin appear to have the broadest potential as viable insect-control agents (226,227). Lytic enzymes are important components of these fungi's insecticidal activity. Insect chitin, which is surrounded by a protein matrix, forms 30 (w w) of the cuticle and functions as a barrier against entomopathogenic fungi whose mode of invasion is transcuticular. Chitin is a metabolic target of selective pest control agents. The production of chitinolytic enzymes, intended to penetrate the host cuticle, has been documented for several entomopathogenic fungi, including Aspergillus flavus (228,229), B. bassiana...

Hurdles and Constraints

As a result, the development of biological and sustainable plant protection products is hardly accomplished. The demand for these kinds of products is rising in our societies, but the potential that microorganisms offer to control pests is not met. Lessons should be learned from this history with the commercialization of biopesticides. In the scientific literature, many authors report research topics related to the development and commercialization of a microbial control agent. Usually, this refers to biological and technical subjects, and sometimes to regulatory aspects. Few authors addressed market and commercial aspects, and even fewer focussed on economic considerations. There is no extensive treatment of the entire developmental process in the literature. Several authors have observed too that, despite abundant research on microbial pest control agents, commercialization of products has only been accomplished in a limited number of cases (Cross and Polonenko 1996 Fravel...

Product Development Process

The principal aim of this book is to examine and evaluate the current situation, to understand why projects and products fail, to understand the needs of the market, and to examine what knowledge, techniques and resources are required to improve the development of a microbial pest control product. With this understanding I will develop a complete and structured roadmap for the successful development and commercialization of a microbial pest control product for the control of insect and mite pests. All subjects will be covered, from the identification and description of the pest problem for which a solution is needed, to successfully selling the product. The emphasis will be on the entire process of development and commercialization from a business point of view. Economic considerations will be highlighted, next to biological, technical and regulatory aspects. Special emphasis is given on criteria for decisions that have to be made continuously in such a complex process. A systematic...

What is the EU Legislative Framework

REACH will not apply to all chemicals and does not cover plant protection products, biocides, human medicines and veterinary medicines, which are regulated by different European directives. Assessment of the potential risks to the environment arising from veterinary medicines is required under Directive 2001 82 EC 41 and assessment of risks from human medicines is required under Directive 2001 83 EC.42 Plant protection products (agricultural pesticides) are regulated under Directive 91 414 EEC,43 whereas biocides (non-agricultural pesticides) are regulated under Directive 98 8 EC.44 Biocides include products used as disinfectants or preservatives as well as for pest control (e.g. rodenticides, antifouling agents). Some form of environmental risk assessment is required for all chemicals. However, whereas the registration of most chemicals is dependent on the outcome of this risk assessment, this is not the case for human medicines. The environmental impact of human medicines must be...

What are we Trying to Protect

Deciding what an environmental risk assessment is designed to protect requires input from stakeholders as well as scientists, and includes consideration of ecological values as well as ecological principles. Ecosystems provide society with many goods and services.17 Essential ecosystem goods include the supply of oxygen, food, water, medicines and raw materials, and essential ecosystem services include nutrient cycling, water purification, waste removal, flood control, pollination and pest control.

Promotional Factors and Trends

Biopesticides are becoming a preferred option for pest control due to resistance to chemicals, restricted entry intervals for workers, and residue concerns. They are also safe for beneficial organisms, for the crop, and for the environment. Growers' awareness of these benefits is increasing and this stimulates the adoption of biopesticides.

Anthelmintics and antifungals

Levamisole (Figure 2) is another anthelmintic that is used for the control of lungworms and gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle, sheep and swine. It can be administered orally, topically, via injection or in a medicated feed. Other compounds such as the tetrahydropyrimidines (i.e., pyrantel or morantel) are administered to swine for the treatment of parasites and are considered broad-spectrum anthelmintics in ruminants. Organophosphates (i.e., dichlorvos and coumaphos) can also be considered anthelmintics in food animals, as well as being an effective external pest control.


Fig. 1.1 Scheme of development of a microbial pest control product used in the Lubilosa programme (Dent 1998). CAB International 1998. All rights reserved Fig. 1.1 Scheme of development of a microbial pest control product used in the Lubilosa programme (Dent 1998). CAB International 1998. All rights reserved

Food safety

According to Regulation (EC) No 854 2004 (entry into force 1 1 2006) audits of good hygiene practices shall verify that food business operators apply procedures continuously and properly concerning at least (a) checks on food-chain information, (b) the design and maintenance of premises and equipment, (c) pre-operational, operational and post-operational hygiene, (d) personal hygiene, (e) training in hygiene and in work procedures, (f) pest control, (g) water quality, (h) temperature control and (i) controls on food entering and leaving the establishment and any accompanying documentation.


About ten species of the Heterorhabditidae known and over thirty species of the Steinernematidae (Stock and Hunt 2006), several Heterorhabditis and Steinernema species have been developed as biological insecticides. They contain symbiotic bacteria, respectively species of the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus, which cause rapid death in infected insects. More information on these nematodes and their symbiotic bacteria can be found in Gaugler (2002) and Grewal et al. (2005). The possibility of mass production in an artificial medium gives these species utility as biological insecticides. These entomopathogenic nematodes are the subject of the development of microbial pest control products covered in this book.

Outline of this Book

Chapter 1 introduces the challenge of the development of microbial pest control products and microbial control. The history of the concept of microbial control is presented and the industrial product developments over time. The need for a roadmap to develop biopesticides is proposed in order to provide successful products in the market. The aim of this book is to present a model that guides product developers towards a successful project. The terminology used is provided. The groups of insect pathogens used in microbial plant protection products are presented bacteria, fungi, baculoviruses, and entomopathogenic nematodes. Finally, an outline of the chapters in this book is given. Chapter 2 discusses the exploratory phase of finding a new microbial pest control agent, and the actual screening phase of species and strains of collected ento-mopathogenic microorganisms. Crucial characteristics of each type of pathogen relevant to their utility as a crop protection product are noted. Three...


Mortality is caused by the pathogenicity and virulence of the pathogen, is dose-dependent, and dependent on the quality of the administered inoculum. In literature many different types of testing methods are described, often bio-assays, for the various pathogens and all kind of different target pests. For overviews and critical considerations regarding the use of bio-assays I refer to Robertson et al. (1995), Lacey (1997), Navon and Ascher (2000), and Hatting and Wraight (2007). It is beyond the scope of this study to analyse all the different types of methods, however, the goal of the testing should be clearly defined beforehand and an attempt is being made here. To do this one has to look at the final goal of the product to control the pest effectively. In practice this means for a grower that a high percentage of the pest be killed within a short time after he has applied the product and at affordable costs. In other words the two crucial parameters are efficacy and economy. These...

Cost Benefit

You might think that it is a normal risk of business that a product fails because the market prefers an alternative product. That is true, but the Biocidal Products Directive imposes an additional risk, of an all-or-nothing nature and seen by many industrialists as potentially subject to political interference, since decisions are made by EU committees. Some argue that fewer new products will be developed because of these real and perceived risks. Others argue that the withdrawal of existing products will act as a spur to innovation to produce replacement products. My own judgment is that innovation in this sector will be reduced, with resultant lack of consumer choice and probably poorer pest control and more damage to the environment. Niche products, which do a particular biocidal job very well but serve a limited market, are likely to suffer most, since there are smaller volumes over which to spread the costs of testing.

Viruses and Bacteria

The natural enemies of insects are obvious agents for insect control. These organisms are species specific, and it will probably be a long time before the insect develops defense mechanisms to ward off the predators. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa have been suggested as possible natural control agents, although only viruses and bacteria are currently in use. Viruses and bacteria have two major advantages over other methods of pest control they are highly infectious, and they spread rapidly. Often they become established in the environment, hence need to be applied only once. Therefore, in the ideal case it will not be necessary to mass-produce the virus but rather to rely on its reproductive ability in the presence of the insect host. This ideal was achieved in the case of the European spruce sawflies in Canada. This insect has been virtually eliminated by a virus predator.

Hazard of Flies

Our Gulf war correspondent faxed us an ad for a pest control firm published in an English-language newspaper in Saudi Arabia. It says This is what happens when a fly lands on your food. Flies can't eat solid food, so to soften it up they vomit on it. Then they stamp the vomit in until it's a liquid, usually stamping in a few germs for good measure. Then when its' good and runny they suck it all back again, probably dropping some excrement at the same time. And then, when they've finished eating, it's your turn. Had your breakfast yet

Future Perspective

An analysis of macro-environmental factors and trends assists a company in understanding its business position, the market, and potential directions for new developments. At the present, many external factors occur simultaneously which cause pest management policy to change in such a way that this offers an improved climate for the biopesticide industry. I will present the major factors and trends that limit or stimulate biological control. Suggestions are provided to improve wider adoption of microbial pest control products. I will sketch an outlook on the market, and on the way forward with biopesticides and other biologically-based alternatives for crop protection.

Concluding Remarks

In conclusion, many factors influence the adoption of biopesticides in the marketplace. Changes in regulations, and in political, cultural and social perceptions all determine the demand for sustainable crop protection agents. Research and technological discoveries create new possibilities for development of better products. Globalization opens new markets and offers potential usages, but also creates more problems such as invasive pests and diseases. The current macro-environmental trends support the assumption that demand for alternative crop protection products will grow rapidly to replace conventional chemical pesticides. We have heard similar stories many times before, but they never materialized in terms of large sales of biopesticides. But this time, they all seem to fall in place, and the incentive to reduce chemical pest control is really coming from the market. I am confident that this will create a true demand.


Agriculture has played an important role in the development of human civilization. Pesticides are used in agricultural activities to increase the production yield and for the purpose of pest control. However, pesticides are well known as toxic pollutants, which are hazardous to human health. Current studies are concentrating on the detection of organophosphate pesticides. Many researchers have introduced CNTs into Acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-based electrochemical biosensor for pesticides detection (Gao et al. 2009 Chen et al. 2008 Du et al. 2007 Kandimalla and Ju 2006). The detection was based on the inhibition of AChE. Du et al. (2007) reported that AChE was covalently bound to a crosslinked chitosan-MWCNT composite. When AChE was immobilized on the electrode surface, it will interact with the substrate of acethylthiocholine, which will be further hydrolysed to obtain thiocholine. Oxidation of thiocholine will produce detectable signal which was catalyzed by MWCNTs and thus, increase...


The wide range of biological activity exhibited by the precocenes suggests that the antiallatrotropins could be very effective agents for insect control. They have a decided advantage over juvenile hormones in that their toxic properties are effective on the adult and on the egg as well as on the larva. In addition, their effect on the larval stage is to accelerate development to the

Methyl Bromide

In the production of many economically important crops for the management of plant-pathogenic nematodes, soil-borne fungi and bacteria, and weeds 403 . This compound is also used as a space fumigant for commodities, for structural pest control, and for quarantine and regulatory purposes. For preplanting soil fumigation, methyl bromide is generally applied under a sheet of polyethylene plastic, which may remain in place until the crop cycle is completed.


Evidence has been provided that exoenzymes produced by many fungi and bacteria are strictly involved in the microbes' antagonism toward plant pathogens and pests. These exoenzymes, possessing chitinolytic, glucanolytic, cellulolytic, or proteolytic activities, can be used individually or in combination to provide an enzymatic basis for a number of processes, which ultimately lead to a biocontrol effect. Among these processes, one of the most intensively studied is the mycoparasitism seen in Trichoderma spp., Gliocladium spp., and some other fungal antagonists of plant-pathogenic fungi. To achieve efficient biocontrol, the collaborative interaction of the enzymes and secondary metabolites (particularly antibiotics) usually is required. Mycoparasitism is a specific mechanism of some fungal antagonists' biocontrol activity, the efficiency of which very much depends on their ability to produce lytic enzymes. However, many other antagonistic organisms serve as efficient biocontrol agents...

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