Acknowledgements

The Expert Committee acknowledges the valuable contributions of the following WHO staff members, which helped to provide a basis for its discussions and report Dr A.T. Aitio, International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland Dr C. Frederickson, Regional Adviser, WHO Regional Office for the Americas PAHO, Brasilia, Brazil Dr P. Guillet, Communicable Disease Control, Prevention and Eradication, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland Dr L. Manga,...

Bendiocarb

Melting-point a melting range should be specified. Water-dispersible powder (WP) Content see Annex 1, section 1.2. Persistent foam see Annex 1, section 1.4.7. Wettability see Annex 1, section 1.4.8. Heat stability see Annex 1, section 1.4.6. Content see Annex 1, section 1.2. Dustability see Annex 1, section 1.4.4. Heat stability see Annex 1, section 1.4.6. Content see Annex 1, section 1.2. Cold test see Annex 1, section 1.4.6. Flash-point see Annex 1, section...

Brodifacoum

Technical (TC) interim specification published in 1997 (2) Content see Annex 1, section 1.2. Accepted as full specification, subject to the amendment proposed. Concentrates at 5g kg and 25g kg (TK) interim specification published in 1997 (2) Baits at lOmg kg and 50mg kg (RB) interim specification published in 1997 (2) Recommended for retention as interim specification because there is no accepted guideline for the specification of baits. Industry should be asked to propose a guideline...

Calculation

Tablet integrity is determined by calculating the degree of attrition according to the formula where M, weight of the tablets before rotation M2 weight of the tablets after rotation Report the degree of attrition to the nearest 0.1 and specify the following conditions specification of rotating disc Note 1. Weigh 10 tablets if the weight of a single tablet is 5 g. Weigh two tablets if the weight of a single tablet is > 5 g. Note 2. The test is declared failed if broken tablets are collected...

Chemistry And Specifications Of Pesticides

Sixteenth report of the WHO Expert Committee on Vector Biology and Control The World Health Organization was established in 1948 as a specialized agency of the United Nations serving as the directing and coordinating authority for international health matters and public health. One of WHO'S constitutional functions is to provide objective and reliable information and advice in the field of human health, a responsibility that it fulfils in part through its extensive programme of publications....

Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council and AOAC International

There has been long-term and fruitful collaboration between WHOPES, CIPAC and AOAC International in support of analytical methods for quality control of WHO specifications. CIPAC confirmed its continuing collaboration with WHO and particularly with the WHOPES programme. The Committee made the following recommendations. 1. The relationships between WHOPES and CIPAC and AOAC International should be strengthened and formalized to promote the optimum use of resources in preparing and using...

Common issues

The Committee identified the following common issues of importance related to the public health use of pesticides. Vector-borne diseases continue to be of global public health importance. There is continued reliance on chemical control of vectors. Current monitoring for insecticide resistance management of vectors and pests of public health importance is inadequate. Very few new cost-effective chemical pesticides suitable for public health use have been developed in recent years. Increasing...

Containers packaging marking and storage of pesticides

The storage stability of a pesticide formulation depends on the intrinsic stability of the active ingredient, the formulation and the protective function of the packing material. The pesticide container is essential in protecting the environment from the product, i.e. from leaks or spills caused by rough handling or pressure build-up in the container. The container must also protect the formulation from the environment, i.e. from moisture, or from air where the product is sensitive to oxygen....

Cyfluthrin

Technical (TC) interim specification published in 1998 (3) Content see Annex 1, section 1.2. Accepted as full specification, subject to the amendment proposed. Water-dispersible powder (WP) interim specification published in 1998 (J) Wettability see Annex 1, section 1.4.8. Sieving Sieve mesh sizes should conform with FAO requirements (75 jim). Suspensibility see Annex 1, section 1.4.3. Recommended as interim specification, subject to resolution of sieve mesh size and incorporation of the...

Deltamethrin

Persistent foam see Annex 1, section 1.4.7. Sieving see Annex 1, section 1.4.10. Suspensibility see Annex 1, section 1.4.3. Heat stability see Annex 1, section 1.4.6. Content see Annex 1, section 1.2. Cold test see Annex 1, section 1.4.6. Heat stability see Annex 1, section 1.4.6. Content see Annex 1, section 1.2. Sieving see Annex 1, section 1.4.10. Dustability see Annex 1, section 1.4.4. Heat stability see Annex 1, section 1.4.6. Content see Annex 1, section 1.2. Cold test see Annex 1,...

Deltamethrin Risomer

Note The method used to determine the deltamethrin i -isomer content differs slightly from the method described in the current WHO specification for deltamethrin technical and deltamethrin formulations (WP, EC, DP, UL, SC) in order to accommodate the extraction of deltamethrin active ingredient from the water-dispersible tablet. The water-dispersible tablet sample is dissolved in a mixture of dioxane water and iso-octane. The i -isomer content is determined by comparing the response of the...

Diazinon

CIPAC and manufacturers should be asked to modify the analytical method to use an alternative internal standard (aldrin specified). Methods are not available for impurities. Water-dispersible powder (WP) Content see Annex 1, section 1.2. Impurities limits for 0,S-TEPP and S,S-TEPP content should be set relative to the active ingredient content. Persistent foam see Annex 1, section 1.4.7. Wettability see Annex 1, section 1.4.8. Suspensibility see Annex 1, section 1.4.3. Heat stability see Annex...

Disposal of unusable pesticides and pesticide containers

Good practices in the management of pesticides include the avoidance or minimization of stocks of unusable pesticides. The Committee noted the hazards associated with unusable pesticide stocks and the high cost of safe and environmentally sound disposal, and suggested that the long-term solution lies in preventive measures. The Committee recommended the following measures to avoid accumulation of unusable pesticides provision of phasing-out when banning or deregistering pesticides investment in...

Fenitrothion

Persistent foam see Annex 1, section 1.4.7. Cold test see Annex 1, section 1.4.6. Heat stability see Annex 1, section 1.4.6. Water-dispersible powder (WP) Content see Annex 1, section 1.2. Persistent foam see Annex 1, section 1.4.7. Sieving see Annex 1, section 1.4.10. Suspensibility see Annex 1, section 1.4.3. Heat stability see Annex 1, section 1.4.6.

Fenthion

Water-dispersible powder (WP) Content see Annex 1, section 1.2. Persistent foam see Annex 1, section 1.4.7. Wettability see Annex 1, section 1.4.8. Sieving see Annex 1, section 1.4.10. Suspensibility see Annex 1, section 1.4.3. Heat stability see Annex 1, section 1.4.6. Content see Annex 1, section 1.2. Persistent foam see Annex 1, section 1.4.7. Cold test see Annex 1, section 1.4.6. Heat stability see Annex 1, section 1.4.6.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

The Committee expressed its appreciation for the continuing intensive collaboration between FAO and WHO and endorsed the envisaged further expansion of this cooperation to reflect the guiding role of these two organizations in the implementation of the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides. The Committee made the following recommendations. 1. The specification guidelines described in Chapters 4-6 of the FAO publication Manual on the development and use of FAO...

General recommendations

In concluding its work, the Committee made the following general 1. To improve further the quality of pesticides used in public health, WHO should ensure the wide distribution of WHO specifications and should strengthen and expand pesticide quality control programmes. For reasons of human and environmental safety, efficacy and economy, pesticide products of good quality are essential. 2. Where pesticides must be used in public health, WHO, in collaboration with industry and other relevant...

Global Crop Protection Federation

The Global Crop Protection Federation (GCPF) (formerly the International Group of National Associations of Manufacturers of Agro-chemical Products, GIFAP), which represents national associations of pesticide producers, informed the Committee of its appreciation for the invitation by WHO to participate in the process of setting WHO specifications for products for use in public health programmes, and expressed its willingness, in principle, to cooperate with WHO to ensure that the process is...

Household insecticide products

The increasing awareness and worsening situation of household pest problems and the improved socioeconomic conditions in many tropical developing countries have resulted in the increased demand and use of household insecticide products. Although there are existing but limited national specifications for some of these products, there are no internationally agreed guideline specifications. A WHO informal consultation on guideline specifications for household insecticide products was held in...

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

The IUPAC Commission on Agrochemicals and the Environment seeks to advance research understanding and promote environmental stewardship and human safety with agrochemicals through its publications, international pesticide congresses and regional workshops. The Committee was informed that IUPAC has taken the decision to become a project-driven body and is seeking relevant project proposals from outside organizations such as WHO and FAO. Commission projects currently in progress include studies...

Lindane

Water-dispersible powder (WP) Content see Annex 1, section 1.2. Persistent foam see Annex 1, section 1.4.7. Wettability see Annex 1, section 1.4.8. Sieving see Annex 1, section 1.4.10. Suspensibility see Annex 1, section 1.4.3. Heat stability see Annex 1, section 1.4.6. Method include reference to CIPAC method 488 TC M3 (7). Persistent foam see Annex 1, section 1.4.7. Cold test see Annex 1, section 1.4.6. Heat stability see Annex 1, section 1.4.6. Method include reference to CIPAC method 488 TC...

Malathion

WHO should review the specifications to consider clauses for iso-malathion for the TC, EC and DP. Water-dispersible powder (WP) Content see Annex 1, section 1.2. Persistent foam see Annex 1, section 1.4.7. Wettability see Annex 1, section 1.4.8. Sieving see Annex 1, section 1.4.10. Suspensibility see Annex 1, section 1.4.3. Heat stability see Annex 1, section 1.4.6. Content see Annex 1, section 1.2. Persistent foam see Annex 1, section 1.4.7. Cold test see Annex 1, section 1.4.6. Heat stability...

Methods

Methods, requirements and descriptions should be harmonized in their format and content. For example Description of the reagents or apparatus replace special reagents or apparatus with reagents or apparatus. It is not necessary to specify the minimum purity of calibration standards, although the purity must be known and the absence of interferences must be checked. Chromatographic columns or equivalent should be specified, unless no alternative can be used. Presentation of injection sequences...

Niclosamide

WHO should review the specification to take account of the new CIPAC analytical method for niclosamide (ref. 4113 M, in press). Melting-point A melting range should be specified. The calculation should be checked for the expression of niclosamide (not salt). Persistent foam see Annex 1, section 1.4.7. Wettability see Annex 1, section 1.4.8. Sieving see Annex 1, section 1.4.10. Suspensibility see Annex 1, section 1.4.3. Heat stability see Annex 1, section 1.4.6. Content see Annex 1, section 1.2....

Packing and marking of packages

Each deltamethrin water-dispersible tablet shall be individually sealed in foil before placement in an outer pack. Loose tablets. Several foil-sealed tablets are packed loose in an outer cardboard pack. Full instructions for use and precautions are provided on the label on the outside of the pack and on several fly sheets (as specified in the order) packed inside the cardboard box with the tablets. Envelope and presentation tablets. Single foil-sealed tablets are attached to an envelope card...

Recommended changes to existing specifications and methods

General changes to specifications 32 1.1 Material and Description and ingredients 33 1.2 Active ingredient content 33 1.4 Physical and physicochemical properties 33 2. Specific changes to specifications 35 3. Specific changes to WHO test methods 46 4. New WHO test methods 48 References 48

References

Chemistry and specifications of pesticides. Thirteenth report of the WHO Expert Committee on Vector Biology and Control. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1990 (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 798). 2. International Code of Conduct in the Distribution and Use of Pesticides. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1990. 3. Report of the first WHOPES Working Group meeting WHO HQ, Geneva, 26-27 June 1997. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1997 (unpublished document CTD...

Region of the Americas

In many countries in Latin America vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue dengue haemorrhagic fever, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis are still important causes of morbidity. In 1997, 1075445 cases of malaria and 741798 cases of dengue dengue haemorrhagic fever were reported. In Brazil, 4 of the rural population are estimated to be positive for Chagas. Leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis and filariasis are important but localized problems. Control of these diseases relies on the integration...

Sample preparation and analysis

Quantitatively transfer the retained one-tenth of the suspension to a 50-ml volumetric flask, rinsing several times with small quantities of acetonitrile. Dilute to about 1cm below the mark and place the flask in an ultrasonic bath for 15 minutes to dissolve the deltamethrin (a volume contraction occurs) and wait for 15 minutes. Make up to volume with acetonitrile and mix thoroughly. Filter rapidly to avoid any solvent loss or centrifuge. The extract, which must be clear, is used for the...

Specific changes to WHO test methods

The Committee made the following recommendations in relation to The text of Note 1, page 103, of the FAO Manual (4) (sampling of SC) should be incorporated Before sampling to verify the formulation quality, inspect the commercial container carefully. On standing, suspension concentrates usually develop a concentration gradient from the top to the bottom of the container. This may even result in the appearance of a clear liquid on the top and or of sediment on the bottom. Therefore, before...

Specifications for pesticides

Testing of pesticide products is important because, where products meet their specifications, they can be expected to be effective and to pose no unexpected risks in use. Where products do not comply with specifications, they should not be purchased and regulatory authorities should take appropriate action. Where products already held by the end-user fail to meet specifications, decisions on what to do with them can only be made on a case-by-case basis. End-users in this situation should take...

Suspensibility

The words the tube must be isolated from hand's heat should be deleted. Suspensibility should be tested after heat stability treatment. In case of unacceptable results, the suspensibility should be determined without heat treatment. 15 of the declared content for homogeneous formulations or 25 for he- Above 25 up to 100 Above 100 up to 250 Above 250 up to 500 Above 500 terogeneous formulations 10 of the declared content 6 of the declared content 5 of the declared content

Temephos

Persistent foam see Annex 1, section 1.4.7. Cold test see Annex 1, section 1.4.6. Heat stability see Annex 1, section 1.4.6. Emulsifiable concentrate for Simulium control (EC) Content see Annex 1, section 1.2. Density see Annex 1, section 1.4.2. Content see Annex 1, section 1.2, except that the tolerance for a declared content of up to 25g kg should be 25 owing to the heterogeneity of the product.

Cyhalothrin

Technical (TC) interim specification published in 1997 (2) Content see Annex 1, section 1.2. Accepted as full specification, subject to the amendment proposed. Water-dispersible powder (WP) interim specification published in 1997 (2) Persistent foam see Annex 1, section 1.4.7. Wettability see Annex 1, section 1.4.8. Sieving see Annex 1, section 1.4.10. Suspensibility see Annex 1, section 1.4.3. Heat stability see Annex 1, section 1.4.6. Accepted as full specification, subject to the amendments...

Synthetic pesticides

The Committee considered the harmonization of specifications issued by WHO and FAO. Many pesticides marketed internationally are of interest to both organizations, particularly insecticides and rodenti-cides. For some of these pesticides, WHO and FAO have published separate specifications, but the parameters to be measured and the criteria adopted are sometimes quite different. In most cases, it would be better to specify the same tests in both sets of specifications, particularly for technical...

Western Pacific Region

Malaria is the most important vector-borne disease in the 27 countries of the Region. The overall number of cases reported from the nine malaria endemic countries has been reduced by nearly 80 since 1992, but more than 400000 cases and 2000 deaths are still reported annually. Dengue dengue haemorrhagic fever, the second most important vector-borne disease, occurs throughout the Region, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis and various arboviral...

Analytical methods and quality control of pesticides in developing countries

Good product quality is essential to the effective and safe use of pesticides. Applying products that are lower in active ingredient content than declared could result in monetary loss and the application of a sublethal dose of pesticide, leading to ineffective control and promotion of the development of resistance. Products or formulations with inferior physicochemical properties such as suspensibility, emulsification or particle size characteristics, can also result in inadequate application...

Bacterial larvicides

The Committee considered the report of the WHO informal consultation on guideline specifications for bacterial larvicides for public health use, held in Geneva from 28 to 30 April 1999 (7), and reviewed the comments on the report and suggestions received from Member States and industry. The Committee made the following recommendations. 1. Industrial firms should be encouraged to develop test methods for accelerated storage stability determination for bacterial larvicides. 2. The industry should...

Chemical and physical requirements

The material, sampled from any part of the consignment (see method WHO M 1 (7) see also Annex 1, section 3, of this report), shall comply with the requirements of section 1.1 and with the following requirements. 1.2.1 Etofenprox content (g kg basis) Nominal content Up to 25 g kg Above 25 g kg up to 100 g kg Above lOOg kg up to 250g kg The average content of all the the nominal content. Tolerance permitted 15 of the declared content 10 of the declared content 6 of the declared content samples...

Methods of determining physical and chemical properties 21 Etofenprox content

The sample is dissolved in methanol tetrahydrofuran (50 50, v v) containing di-cyclohexyl phthalate as internal standard. Separation is carried out by gas-liquid chromatography with a flame ionization detector on a column of Chromosorb W-HP (or equivalent) coated with silicon AN-600. Etofenprox is determined by comparison with calibration solutions. Gas-liquid chromatograph. Capable of operating over the range 100300 C with a flame ionization detector, injection port heater and on-column...

Methods of determining chemical and physical properties 21 Deltamethrin content

Note The method used to determine the deltamethrin content differs slightly from the method described in the current WHO specification for deltamethrin technical and deltamethrin formulations (WP, EC, DP, UL, SC) in order to accommodate the extraction of deltamethrin active ingredient from the water-dispersible tablet. Deltamethrin is extracted from the water-dispersible tablet sample with a mixture of dioxane and water. The suspension is further diluted five times with iso-octane and filtered....

Deltamethrin waterdispersible tablets WT

Specification The material shall consist of a homogeneous mixture of technical deltamethrin together with carriers and any other suitable formulants. It shall be in the form of tablets or pills that disintegrate, disperse and wet out readily on stirring into water. The technical deltamethrin used in the manufacture of the water-dispersible tablets shall comply with the requirements of specification WHO SIT 24.R1 1.2 Chemical and physical requirements The material,...

The WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme

The WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme WHOPES , set up in 1960, is the only international programme that promotes and coordinates the testing and evaluation of pesticides intended for public health use. The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides 2 constitutes the framework for WHOPES in promoting the safe handling and use, efficacy, cost-effective application and quality control of pesticide products formulations for public health use. WHOPES develops...