Plant Adaptation

Rhyzoremediation

Heavy Metal Abc Transporter

Fig. 14.1 Mechanisms involved in inorganic and organic pollutant decontamination degradation in phytoremediation processes Xenobiotic pollutants that can be remediated metabolised include thrichloroethy-lene (TCE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, explosives, trinitrotoluene (TNT), petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and detergents (Macek et al. 2000 Newman and Reynolds 2004). Soils that have been contaminated by weathered hydrocarbons and heavy...

Water Relation

Water can be considered as a major factor in the plant growth regulation since it affects directly or indirectly all growth process Kramer and Boyer 1995 . Plants raised in metal contaminated soils often suffer drought stress mainly due to poor physicochemical properties of soil and shallow root system, therefore, researchers are interested in investigations on plant water relation under heavy metal stress. Selection of drought resistance species can be considered to be an important trait in...

Predicting Growth Carbon Sequestration and Salinity Impacts of Forestry Plantations

Nico Marcar, Tivi Theiveyanathan, Debbie Crawford, Charlie Hawkins, Tom Jovanovic, Philip Polglase, Anders Siggins, Jacqui England, Auro Almeida, Keryn Paul, and Brendan Christy Abstract Farm forestry is an increasingly important form of diversifying farm income and helping to deal with environmental issues including dryland salinity, global warming and climate variability. Here we briefly describe the development, use and spatial application of improved versions of the plantation growth model,...

More Reveals Of Xerophytic Species

Salsola Paulsenii

Fig. 12.1 Distribution characteristics of trace elements in various desert taxa Halopeplis pygmea, Amaranthus retroflexus, Limonium sogdianum, Sonchus maritima Puccinella scleroides, Sorghum bicolor, Peganum harmala, Haloxylon aphyllum, as well as annual and perennial species of the genus Salsola. These pioneer plant species were growing well on mined areas despite unfavourable conditions such as extreme pH, high salinity and phytotoxic levels of several elements. 4 Salt Accumulation,...

Phytoremediation Strategies for Overcoming Salinity Problems and Use of Halophytes as Companion Plants

In recent years, salinity has become the most important issue in fields, gardens and greenhouses as well. This, of course, has forced us to control saline areas, and therefore, many control mechanisms that have been put forward. Many of them (genetics, biochemical and physical) have not brought the desired success. Since salt is due to irrigation and natural causes, so, alternative control mechanisms should be provided. Recent advancement in this area is to obtain quick results from...

Toxins and Their Types

Toxins are generally classified into biodegradable (organic) and non-biodegradable (inorganic) pollutants (Verhaar et al. 2000 Gramatica et al. 2002). Biodegradable toxins are easily broken down into simpler molecules (CO2 and water) by the activity of living organisms when they enter in the biogeochemical cycles. Such toxins are generally not harmful as they occur in low quantities in our environment. However, at high concentrations they prove to be highly toxic to all living organisms. In...

Glutathione Reductase GR EC 1642

GR is a flavo-protein oxidoreductase, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes that catalyses the NADPH-dependent reduction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to its reduced form (GSH). In the cell, GR is located in the chloroplast stroma, mitochondria, cytosol and peroxisomes. Plants have multiple forms of this enzyme, eight in pea (Edwards et al. 1990) and two in wheat (Dalal and Khanna-Chopra 2001). There are reports which showed that different environmental stresses induce GR activity. For...

Ascorbic Acid Vitamin C

Among the non-enzymatic antioxidants AsA is the most extensively studied molecule and is found in various plant cell types (Horemans et al. 2000 Smirnoff 2000). Although the precursor of L-ascorbic acid is D-glucose, its biosynthetic pathway is still unclear (Foyer and Noctor 2005). Normally, ascorbate occurs in the reduced form (AsA). (90 of the ascorbate pool) and its intracellular concentration ranges from 20 mM in the cytosol to 300 mM in the chloroplast (Noctor and Foyer 1998). The...

Drought Stress

Stress is defined an external factor that exerts a disadvantageous influence on the plant. In most, cases stress is measured in relation to growth or to the primary assimilation processes (CO2 and mineral uptake) which are related to overall growth. Under both natural and agricultural conditions, plants are constantly exposed to stress. Some environmental factors (such as air temperature) can become stressful in just a few minutes, whereas others may take days to weeks (soil water) or even...

Heavy Metal Stress

An immense load of heavy metals such as Pb, Cr, As, Cu, Cd and Hg is being added to our soils through industrial, agricultural and domestic effluents. These elements can either be absorbed in soil particles or leached into ground water. Problems associated with the contamination of soil and water such as animal welfare, health, fatalities and disruption of natural ecosystems is well documented He et al. 2005 . Human exposure to these metals through ingestion of contaminated food or uptake of...

Salts as Potential Environmental Pollutants Their Types Effects on Plants and Approaches for Their Phytoremediation

Abstract Demand for food dramatically increases as the world gets populated, and this problem is of central attention all over the world. Under these circumstances, the balance between food production and consumption depends on the agricultural productivity. However, an increase in the world population and decrease in the agricultural areas due to many reasons such as industrializations, global warming, use of marginal water etc. have been forcing us to use arable lands efficiently as well as...

The Role of Proline Accumulation Under Salt Stress

Proline accumulation has occupied a special position in plant physiological research, particularly in response to different stresses. Its accumulation at whole plant level under salt stress in halophytes has been reported by many workers such as Smirnoff and Stewart, 1985 Aghaleh et al. 2009) in coastal plants Stewart and Lee (1974) in Triglochin maritima and Armeria maritima. Proline accumulation has been reported under salt stress in glycophytes such as Hordeum vulgare (Buhl and Stewart...

Roots Plant Enginee Rganapathy

Abrol IP, Yadav JSP, Massoud FI (1988) Salt Affected Soils and their Management. FAO Soils Bulletin-39. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome Adams P, Ho LC (1993) Effects of environment on the uptake and distribution of calcium in tomato and on incidence of blossom end rot. Plant Soil 154 127-132 Agarie S, Shimoda T, Shimizu Y, Baumann K, Sunagawa H, Kondo A, Ueno O, Nakahara T, Nose A, Cushman JC (2007) Salt tolerance, salt accumulation, and ionic homeostasis in an...

Effects of Herbicides and Pesticides on Aquatic Life

Pollution to aquatic life is mostly land based and caused by agricultural overspill and waste materials carried by wind. The surface flow can contaminate water sources as 1-6 of the applied pesticides may be lost to the aquatic environment by runoff and drainage depending on the slope of the field, agronomic practices, presence or absence of subsurface drains, and the quantity and timing of rainfall after applications. Sometimes these deposited chemicals react in such a way that they may cause...

Mechanism of Free Radical Scavenging and Role of Phytohormones in Plants Under Abiotic Stresses

Parvaiz Ahmad, Shahid Umar, and Satyawati Sharma Abstract Environmental stresses result in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. ROS accumulate in cells and lead to the oxidation of proteins, chlorophyll, lipids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates etc. Cells have evolved intricate defense systems including enzymatic (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductases (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductases (MSHAR), dehydroascorbate...

Phytoremediation of Toxins

Phytoremediation, a subcategory of bioremediation, is generally defined as removal of toxins from the environment by the use of hyperaccumulator plants. This word has been derived from the Greek Phyto meaning plant, and Latin Remedium meaning refurbishing balance, removal, or remediation. Thus, in the process of phytoremediation, pollutant toxins from contaminated soils, water or air are mitigated removed by using plants which are able to hold, breakdown or remove metals, salts, insecticides,...

Perspective on Phytoremediation for Improving Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils

Appendix Mucocele Management Oral Boards

Hong-Bo Shao, Li-Ye Chu, Fu-Tai Ni, Dong-Gang Guo, Hua Li, and Wei-Xiang Li Abstract Heavy metal pollution of soil is a significant environmental problem and has its negative potential impact on human health and agriculture. Phytoremediation strategies with appropriate heavy metal-adapted rhizobacteria (for example, myc-orrhizae) have received more and more attention. Some plants possess a range of potential mechanisms that may be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals, and they manage...

Cyanide Phytoremediation Technologies

Phytoremediation is a family of emerging biotechnologies that utilize plants for the remediation of environmental contamination. Bushey et al. (2006) described five important steps for phytoremediation Phytoextraction is the use of plants to remove metals, or other contaminants from soil and concentrate those contaminants in above-ground plant tissues and finally these contaminants are removed by harvesting the aerial tissues. Rhizofiltration is the use of plant roots to remove contaminants...

Transgenic Plants for Phytoremediation of Explosive Compounds

Although plants are capable of reducing the concentrations of some organic environmental pollutants, the activity is often too slow to be of practical value. Because phytoremediation proceeds primarily only during the growing season, substantial remediation must be achieved during a limited time period. The effectiveness of phytoremediation can be greatly enhanced by introducing genes known to be involved in metabolism of pollutants in other organisms (Table 17.2). For example, the...

Transgenics for Cyanide Remedy

Phytodegradation of cyanide can be optimized by selecting or engineering plant species with higher activities of the enzymes thought to be involved and rate-limiting in cyanide detoxification. There are some examples of promising transgenic approaches which have been used in other cases. For example, the expression of bacterial enzymes in plants involved in reductive transformation of TNT tetranitrate reductase or nitroreductase resulted in enhanced plant tolerance and degradation of TNT...

In Vitro Selection for Salt Tolerance

The generation of salt tolerant plants has potential application to semi-arid and arid soils. Plant tissue cultures techniques have been used successfully to develop variant lines from somatic cell cultures (Ben-Hayyim and Kochba 1983 Ben-Hayyim et al. 1985 Rumbaugh and Pendery 1990 Al-Rawahy 2000). Many salt tolerant somatic cell lines have been isolated in a number of plant species, including Nicotiana sylvestris and Capsicum annum (Dix and Street 1975), Citrus (Ben-Hayyim and Kochba 1983),...

References

Aichi M, Nishida I, Omata T (1998) Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding cyanase from Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol Suppl 39 S135 Akcil A (2003) Destruction of cyanide in gold mill effluents biological versus chemical treatments. Biotechnol Adv 21 501-511 Akcil A, Mudder T (2003) Microbial destruction of cyanide wastes in gold mining process review. Biotechnol Lett 25 445-450 Akopyan T, Braunstein AE, Goryachenkova EV (1975) Betacyanoalanine synthase purification...

Boron and Plants

Munir Ozturk, Serdal Sakcali, Salih Gucel, and Huseyin Tombuloglu Abstract Boron is found naturally in the earth's crust in the oxidized form as borax and colemanite, particularly in the oceans, sedimentary rocks, coal, shale, and some soils. It is never found in the elemental form in nature possessing a complex chemistry similar to that of silicon, with properties switching between metals and non-metals. Boron has become an important and strategic element in terms of developing technologies....

Phytoremediation Detoxification of Explosives by Plants

High explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), and 2,4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) are important contaminants in the environment and phytore-mediation has been viewed as a cost-effective abatement. There remains, however, an insufficient knowledge-base about how plants respond to explosives, especially in the steady state (Rao et al. 2009). The two greatest advantages of phytoremediation compared with traditional abatement methods are (1) cost effectiveness, and (2) soils...

Heavy Metal Toxicity in Plants

Fazal Ur Reliman Shah, Nasir Ahmad, Khan Rass Masood, Jose R. Peralta-Videa, and Firoz ud Din Ahmad Abstract Although many metal elements are essential for the growth of plants in low concentrations, their excessive amounts in soil above threshold values can result in toxicity. This detrimental effect varies with the nature of an element as well as plant species. Heavy metal toxicity in plants depends on the bioavailabil-ity of these elements in soil solution, which is a function of pH, organic...

Cyanide Assimilation and Metabolism

In phytoremediation, cyanide uptake is not always associated with cyanide assimilation but sometimes after cyanide uptake, this toxic substance can be accumulated in certain plant species. In all cases where potentially cyanide pollutants are accumulated in plant tissues, phytoremediation in the field should include a risk assessment study because the plant material may pose a threat to wildlife. The degree of tox-icity depends on leaf concentration and also on the form of the cyanide pollutant...

The Active Ingredients of Herbicides and Pesticides

The modern era of pest control by chemicals began by the development of synthetic organic chemical industry. The original and pure form of a pesticide is formulated to technical grade materials that can be used directly. They are amenable to storage, handling and application, and can be used in an effectively and safely manner. They are supplied in many forms like liquid sprays, powders and dusts, oil solutions and aerosols etc. There are several classes of herbicides and pesticides but only...

Introduction

Industrial and military activities have led to widespread contamination of the environments, including thousands of sites termed as Superfund sites that are severely polluted. The concentrations of the contaminants can vary from highly toxic concentrations from an accidental spill to barely detectable concentrations that, after long term exposure can be detrimental to human health (Doty 2008). The cost of cleaning up contaminated sites is extremely high. The global cost of cleaning of these...

Mechanism of Salt Tolerance in Glycophytes and Halophytes

On the basis of their tolerance or sensitivity, plants are commonly distinguished as halophytes or glycophytes. Glycophytes (sweet plants) tolerate only low concentrations of salt, while halophytes (halas salt, salt plants) tolerate relatively high concentrations of salt (Flowers and Yeo 1986 Flowers and Yeo 1988). It was estimated by Flowers et al. (1986) that there were at least 800 species of halophytic angiosperms in more than 250 genera. This illustrates the point that there are many...

Cyanide as a Pollutant

Cyanide is a nitrile, an organic compound that contains a triple-bonded carbon nitrogen functional group. Most such compounds are highly toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic (Banerjee et al. 2002). Common symptoms of cyanide poisoning include gastric problems, vomiting, respiratory distress, convulsions, and coma (Banerjee et al. 2002). The toxicity of cyanide is quite high due to its ability to poison the respiratory system by inhibiting the final transport of electrons from cytochrome C oxidase...

Molecular Mechanisms and Genetic Basis of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Tolerance in Plants

Abstract Heavy metal pollutants are mainly derived from growing number of anthropogenic sources. As the environmental pollution with heavy metals increases, some new technologies are being developed, one of these being phytoremediation. Hyperaccumulator plant varieties can be achieved by using methods of genetic engineering. An uptake of excessive amounts of heavy metals by plants from soil solution leads to range of interactions at cellular level which produce toxic effects on cell metabolism...

Dr Odjegba Adaptation

In plants, roots are the first organs to come into contact with toxic elements and they usually accumulate more metals than shoots (Salt et al. 1995 Wojcik and Tukiendorf 1999 Rout et al. 2001). The inhibition of root elongation appears to be the first visible effect of metal toxicity. Root elongation can be reduced by either the inhibition of root cell division and or the decrease of cell expansion in the elongation zone (Fiskesjo 1997). Since inhibition of root elongation appears to be the...

Phytoremediation

Phytoremediation is the use of vascular plants, algae, or fungi to metabolize, sequester, or to induce contaminants breakdown in soil or other plant growing medium (McCutcheon and Schnoor 2003). Plant sequestration of contaminants is important as an alternative to physically based treatment approaches. The use of plants for remediation seems less expensive, but it depends on certain factors. Phytoremediation has gained importance in the last one decade and approximately US 6-8 billion per year...

Phytoremediation Case Studies

A large number of studies have proved that free cyanide can be rapidly biodegraded by micro-organisms (Knowles and Bunch 1986 Kunz et al. 1994 Fernandez and Kunz 2005), however, many cyanide complexes including iron cyanide complexes tend to be resistant to microbial degradation (Aronstein et al. 1994). There are only few reports of microbial (Cherryholmes et al. 1985 Dursun et al. 1999) and fungal (Barclay et al. 1998) biodegradation of metal cyanide complexes, but this has only been observed...

Biochemical and Molecular Aspects in Phytoremediation of Selenium

Abstract The element selenium (Se) is considered a finite and non-renewable resource on earth, and has been found to be an essential element in humans, animals, micro-organisms and some other eukaryotes but as yet its essentiality to plants is in dispute. There is no doubt that adequate levels of selenium are important to animal and human health, and some selenium compounds have been found to be active against cancers. A limited number of plants growing on selenium rich soils can accumulate...

Uptake and Transport of Cyanide By Plants

Uptake of pollutants by plant roots is different for organics and inorganics. Organic pollutants are usually manmade, and xenobiotic to the plant. As a consequence, there are no transporters available for these compounds in plant membranes. Organic pollutants therefore tend to move into and within plant tissues driven by simple diffusion, depending on their chemical properties. An important property of the organic pollutant for plant uptake is its hydrophobicity (Briggs et al. 1982 Trapp and...

Heavy Metals

Although some of the metals function as essential elements such as copper and zinc in low concentrations, they may become toxic if they accumulate at higher concentrations in the environment (Verkleij and Prast 1990). Other metals (non-essential) may become toxic to organisms even at very low concentrations (Verkleij and Prast 1990 Loska et al. 2000 Islam et al. 2007). The concentration of essential elements in organisms is generally controlled homeostatically i.e., they are taken up from the...

Localization and Distribution of Heavy Metals and Their Transport in the Plants

On the basis of accumulation of heavy metals, plants are divided into three main types (i) accumulator plants which accumulate amass metals primarily in shoots (ii) indicator plants which accumulate metal concentrations in different plant tissues corresponding to high or low concentrations in the environment and (iii) excluder plants which maintain low metal concentrations in their shoots even if the external metal concentration in the environment is high. Generally the heavy metal content in...

Plant Resistance to Anthropogenic Toxicants Approaches to Phytoremediation

Valida Ali-Zade, Esmira Alirzayeva, and Tamilla Shirvani Abstract The problem of soil preservation and restoration has became more intense due to continued deterioration of the ecological systems of the world. This problem is especially important for Azerbaijan, where environmental pollution by heavy metals and oil products is increasing. Though the nature of toxicity of these two factors is different, they both affect plant productivity, including agricultural crops and human health. This...

Effects on Surface and Ground Water Quality in Agricultural Areas

As the toxic effects of herbicides and pesticides have been detected, there is an alarming situation regarding contaminated water resources. Pesticides can enter and contaminate water resources frequently by escapes, erosion, run-off, drift, and rarely, unintentional or intentional discharge. Contamination of ground and surface waters is a major concern because these are used as drinking water (Karcher and El Rassi 1999). If the half life of a pesticide is long, aqueous solubility is high and...

Mechanism of Salt Tolerance

Salt Stress Plant

Although plant responses to salinity are one of the most widely researched subjects in plant physiology, the mechanisms that impart salt tolerance are still unresolved (Cheeseman 1988 Munns 1993 Ashraf and Foolad 2007). Plants which were able to obtain more water than others from a soil under low water potential would grow better in saline conditions (Cruz and Cuartero 1990). So, plants have developed various mechanisms for survival under high salinity stress. Some tolerate high concentrations...

Phytoremediation of Toxic Explosives

Abstract Widespread contamination of the environment by explosives resulting from the manufacture, disposal and testing of munitions is becoming a matter of increasing concern. Most explosives are considered to be a major hazard to biological systems due to their toxic and mutagenic effects. Interest on the bioremediation of lands contaminated with explosives has recently been focused on phytoreme-diation. Unfortunately, whilst plants have many advantages for the remediation of contaminated...

Phytoremediation of Herbicides and Pesticides

Overall, herbicides and pesticides have harmful effects on soil and pesticide-soil interactions need future research. Herbicide and pesticide contamination is usually too expensive to clean up with current mentioned technologies. Studies have shown that certain tolerant plants and microbes can be used in biological remediation which can be cost-effective and simpler, due to the in-situ advantage, pollution can be exacerbated by the pesticides herbicides involved, but these, too can be...

Pest Resistance to Herbicides and Pesticides

Pesticides are used to control pests which may cause economic losses to agricultural products and livestock. The widespread use of herbicides and pesticides may cause weeds and insects to eventually develop resistance to particular chemicals which ultimately compel growers to apply yet multiple or more dose. It is evidently expected that if impacts of herbicides and pesticides are neglected, it will commonly lead to an extensive and long-term effects on mankind and other living beings. Some of...

Integrated Weed Management System

Defining most commonly, weeds are the plants growing where they are not wanted. According to weed experts, weeds are the plants which flourish and sustain their larger quantities even under circumstances of frequent troublesome. Therefore, defining weeds more precisely, they are the plants supposed to have accustomed properties that let them to occupy, continue to exist and replicate agricultural farming. There are improvements in the profitable, ecological and health troubles associated with...

Conclusion Of The Plant Adaptation

Plants and their associated microbes can remediate cyanide via cyanide uptake, transport, degradation and assimilation in plants. Experiments using free cyanide have shown that many terrestrial and aquatic plants including willow, sorghum, cassava and water hyacinth can remove cyanide from the growing medium. Cyanide uptake in plants can be associated with a very complex physiological mechanism which includes transport and assimilation of cyanide within the plants for catering plant's nitrogen...

Adverse Effects of Herbicides and Pesticides on Ecosystem 31 Effects on Structure and Functions of Ecosystem

Application of herbicides and pesticides is meant to reduce the effect of pests to below economically acceptable threshold, estimated on the basis of the amount of damage that can be tolerated to crops. However, sometimes their application can adversely affect the invertebrate species especially within arthropoda (Schluz 2004). The structure as well as the function of microbes may be imbalanced by toxicity of herbicides and pesticides. Studies show that spray drift and surface water runoff...

Pollution Levels in Plants and Animals

Basically, when you use something with nature, either with animals, insects, or humans nature gets used to what you're using and that means that it won't be as effective. Herbicides and pesticides are present in our food supply (plants, animals, fish and grains), although some of these are directly carcinogenic. Organic farms free of herbicides and pesticides naturally promote a healthy environment as it encourages wildlife. Indeed, the potential health effects are of great concern for...

Physical and Chemical Forms of Cyanide

The specific form of cyanide determines the environmental fate and transport of cyanide, as well as its toxicity. Cyanide occurs as various physical metal-cyanide complexes and metal-cyanide solids in water and soil. Figure 18.1 has described distribution of various forms of cyanide in aqueous, solid and gaseous phases. Chemically, cyanide can be classified into inorganic and organic forms, as indicated in Fig. 18.1. Inorganic forms, which occur in all three physical states, include free...

The Structural and Functional Characteristics of Asiatic Desert Halophytes for Phytostabilization of Polluted Sites

Khujanazarov, Shoaib Ismail, and Yoshiko Kawabata Abstract Phytoremediation, the use of plants to extract, sequester, and or detoxify pollutants through biological processes is an effective, in situ, non-intrusive, low-cost, ecologically friendly, socially accepted technology to remediate polluted soils. Crystalline to fibrillar wax formations, appressed to surfaces of guard cells appear to originate from guard cells in the vicinity of the stomatal aperture....

Factors Affecting Uptake and Transport

There are several factors which could affect cyanide uptake 1. For phytoextraction and phytostabilization, selection of plant species with the desired properties is useful. Screening studies under uniform conditions will be a supportive strategy to compare cyanide uptake characteristics of different species. 2. Agronomic practices may also be employed to maximize cyanide uptake. Plant species may be selected for suitable rooting depth and root morphology (Negri et al. 2003) and plant roots can...

Genomics and Proteomics of Cyanide Assimilation in Plants

More than 1000 plant species have been demonstrated to have cyanide detoxifying enzyme systems (Seigler 1998 Raquel et al. 2008) and many bacteria and fungi also showed cyanide degrading activity (Westley 1973 Fry and Evans 1977 Fry and Millar 1972 Barclay et al. 1998 Wang et al. 1992 Nolan et al. 2003 Sexton and Howlett 2000 Fernandez and Kunz 2005). Here we have discussed enzyme kinetics and recent progress of certain important enzymes and genes involved in cyanide detoxification.

Rhodanese EC 2811

An alternative pathway of cyanide detoxification could be carried out by rhodanese (EC 2.8.1.1) (thiosulfate cyanide sulfurtransferase) and the phylogenetically related mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (mercaptopyruvate cyanide sulfurtransferase). Both catalyze the formation of thiocyanate from cyanide and a sulfur donor (thiosulfate and mercaptopyruvate, respectively). Rhodanese is a mitochondrial thiosulphate sulphurtransferase involved in the formation of iron-sulphur complexes. This...

Phytoremediation of Cyanide

Srivastava and Rajasekhara Reddy Duvvuru Muni Abstract Free cyanide and complex cyanide, including HCN and CN- is the most reactive and toxic substance of all industrial and anthropogenic pollutants. Many studies till date have proved that cyanide can be efficiently removed by plants. From the economic point of view, phytoremediation could be an attractive and useful technology in dealing with this dangerous pollutant. Phytoremediation of complex and free cyanide include removal of...

Industrial and Natural Sources of Cyanide

Cyanide can be released by various industrial and natural sources. For example, thiocyanate, SCN-, is present in a variety of industrial wastewater discharge. The cyanogen halides, CNCl and CNBr, form upon chlorination or bromination of water containing free cyanide. These compounds are volatile under environmental conditions and thus occur as aqueous and gaseous phases. Cyanide is also used as a raw material during the production of chemicals (nylon and plastic), pesticides, roden-ticides,...

Phytoremediation of Saline Soils for Sustainable Agricultural Productivity

Yasin Ashraf, Muhammad Ashraf, Khalid Mahmood, Javed Akhter, F. Hussain, and M. Arshad Abstract Salinization of soils is one of the major factors which severely affect the agricultural productivity worldwide. Due to salinity, more than half a billion hectares of land are not being properly used for crop production. Thus, there is a need to search means to improve saline soils so that such soils could support highly productive and meaningful land-use systems to meet the current challenges of...

Herbicides and Pesticides

Herbicides and pesticides have different effects on animals and plants. A few of these chemicals are selective in nature while others are broad spectrum in action. Therefore, broad spectrum pesticides are more hazardous to environment and organisms as compared to selective one (Laws and Hayes 1991 Marer 2000). Most of these chemicals persist in the environment which ultimately proves extremely toxic to non-target plants and animals. In addition to the toxic effects of these chemicals to plants...

Toxins and Their Phytoremediation

Muhammad Ashraf, Munir Ozturk, and Muhammad Sajid Aqeel Ahmad Abstract The agricultural and industrial revolutions in the last few decades have resulted in increased concentration of toxins in our environment that are now-a-days a major cause of toxicity in plants and animals. Among different toxins, increasing levels of salts, heavy metal, pesticides and other chemicals are posing a threat to agricultural as well as natural ecosystems of the world. These contaminants result in soil, air and...

Contributors

Firoz ud Din Ahmad Institute of Geology, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590, Pakistan, hamzafiroz yahoo.com Muhammad Sajid Aqeel Ahmad Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan, sajidakeel yahoo.com Nasir Ahmad Institute of Geology, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590, Pakistan, nasir geo.pu.edu.pk Parvaiz Ahmad Department of Botany, Baramulla College, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 193101, India, parvaizbot rediffmail.com pervaiz_iitd2002...