Bacterial Genes Involved in Phytoremediation of Explosives

TNT is one of the most toxic explosives known to man, affecting plants, animals and most microorganisms. Enterobacter cloacae PB2, a Gram-negative bacterium, is able to utilize TNT as a sole source of nitrogen (Binks et al. 1996). The nsfl gene, isolated from E. cloacae, encodes the enzyme nitroreductase (NR), which is responsible for the reduction of the nitro groups of TNT (Fig. 17.2), producing hydroxylamino- and amino-dinitrotoluenes (French et al. 1998). Hannink et al. (2001) transferred the bacterial nsfl gene into tobacco via Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the bacterial NR enzyme tolerated TNT concentrations up to 0.5 mM, which is the solubility limit of TNT in aqueous solution. In a different study, tobacco plants were transformed with the E. cloacae onr gene, which encodes the enzyme pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN)

Detoxification and Weight Loss

Detoxification and Weight Loss

Detoxification is something that is very important to the body, but it is something that isn't understood well. Centuries ago, health masters in the East understood the importance of balancing and detoxifying the body. It's something that Western medicine is only beginning to understand.

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