Ethylene C2H4

Ethylene (Eth) is produced in most living plant cells and is considered as a plant hormone. Ethylene has many roles in various physiological processes, such as germination, growth, development, senescence and abscission as well as in defense and resistance (Wang et al. 2002). Environmental stress induces the production of ethylene in large amounts (Wang et al. 2006). Induction of ethylene biosynthesis has been shown in spring wheat during osmotic stress (Li et al. 2004) and in maize under UV-B radiation (Wang et al. 2006).

The biosynthesis of ethylene has two main steps: (i) Conversion of S-adenosyl L- methionine to ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) in the presence of catalyzing enzyme ACS (ACC synthase) and (ii) Cleavage of ACC to ethylene in the presence of ACO (ACC oxidase) (Fig. 5.1) (Zarembinski and Theologis 1994). Eth production in the tissues is very less as the activity of ACS enzyme is very low. During stress, the ACS activity is increased which in turn increases the production of ethylene. Tomato exposed to ozone stress induces ACS expression like LE-ACS1A, LE-ACS2, and LE-ACS6, and potato also shows the expression of ST-ACS4 and

MPK6/SIPK

Mpk6 Pathway

MPK6/SIPK

Fig. 5.1 Ethylene Biosynthesis pathway and signaling in stressed plants. In MPK 6 in Arabidopsis and SIPK in tobacco regulates ACC synthase (ACS) whose activity is controlled with cytoso-lic free Ca2+. Ethylene gets attached to ethylene receptots (ETR) and signaling is transmitted through EIN2

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