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□ Bean I Chickpea I Maize

I Tomato

□ Bean I Chickpea I Maize

I Tomato

Boron concentrations (ppm)

Fig. 13.17 Comparison of radicle growth inhibition in crop seedlings under different boron concentrations

Boron concentrations (ppm)

Fig. 13.17 Comparison of radicle growth inhibition in crop seedlings under different boron concentrations

Boron induced polymorphism is higher than many chemicals like mercury, chromium and zinc (Cenkci 2009). The RAPD-PCR method can be used as an inves-tigational tool for boron induced genomic alterations. RAPD-PCR fingerprinting in conjugation with physiological parameters can be a powerful strategy for assessing boron exposure. 0PA-08 primer is informative and may have great potential for detecting boron-induced specific genomic alterations, but the nature and amount of DNA impact in RAPD band can only be obtained by sequencing or probing (Atienzar and Jha 2006). Genomic targets of boron exposure should further be assessed with systematic sequencing to make RAPD-PCR assay a quantification method rather than a qualification method.

Changes in the boron-exposed maize genome observed in the present study is mainly variations in RAPD band intensity in the profiles. Short-term treatment with boron did not seem to induce many permanent genomic mutations or changes in oligonucleotide priming sites that would mainly produce new or result in lost RAPD bands. In this study the appearance of new PCR products was detected at 25 mg L-1 and at 50 mg L 1 respectively (Tables 13.2 and 13.3). Appearance of bands may be a result of the genomic instability related to DNA damage. These damages may be induced directly as seen in aflatoxins or indirectly as seen in oxidative stress (Risom et al. 2005). Many studies show that toxic levels of boron influence the excessive production of ROS in different plants (Cervilla et al. 2007; Ardic et al. 2009). Oxidative stress induces ROS production and may cause chromosomal aberrations and DNA damages (Martindale and Holbrook 2002; Risom et al. 2005). The potential for genotoxicity of boron comes either through the production of ROS via oxidative stress or toxicity determination parameters (Beddowes et al. 2003). The RAPD technique is promising for the detection of boron-induced DNA effects but requires further experimentation and validation. The first thing to evaluate should be the innate genetic variation of the organism and then the acquired and additional genotoxic factors.

Table 13.2 Permeability coefficient of boric acid on artificial and natural membranes, isolated from different species

Permeability coefficient of Boric acid Organism Reference

Table 13.2 Permeability coefficient of boric acid on artificial and natural membranes, isolated from different species

Permeability coefficient of Boric acid Organism Reference

8 x

10—6

cm s 1

Theoretical

Raven (1980)

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