Exercises

2.1. It is well known that the minimum altitude of the ionosphere is higher at night than during the day. Why might this be true?

2.2. Explain why the temperature of the earth's atmosphere increases

(a) from about 15 to 50 km above the earth's surface, and

(b) from about 85 km to the outer limits of the earth's atmosphere.

2.3. What are the three major influences that control earth's atmospheric circulation? Explain the effect of each of these.

2.4. The South Pole, during its midsummer, receives more solar energy during 24 h than any other place on earth, yet it remains extremely cold. Why might this be true?

2.5. A few air pollution experts have accumulated a small amount of evidence indicating that some of the smog particles from Los Angeles eventually come to earth in the vicinity of Albany, New York.

(a) Is this possible? Why or why not?

(b) Is this probable? Why or why not?

2.6. What compounds in the earth's atmosphere are considered to be responsible for acid rain? Why is rain with pH 5.5 not considered to be acid rain?

2.7. Make a sketch of the temperature profile of the earth's atmosphere without looking at Figure 2-4. The ordinate is altitude and the abscissa is temperature. Label the main parts of the atmosphere. Put in approximate temperatures in appropriate places.

2.8. There are several portions of the atmosphere in which the temperature change with altitude indicates that chemical reactions must be taking place. Name each of these parts of the atmosphere, and briefly describe the types of reaction taking place. Indicate why the reactions are different in different portions of the atmosphere.

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