Symbols and Abbreviations

Note: Some of these symbols have other meanings when used in specific contexts; other symbols that are used only in specific contexts may not be

included.

a

Earth's albedo (reflectivity); also Beer-Lambert proportionality constant; also

alpha particle

p

Beta particle

7

Gamma rays

A

Difference or change in a quantity

£

Extinction coefficient; also efficiency of a fuel cell

£o

Permittivity in vacuum

Efficiency

k

Wavelength; also nuclear decay constant

A

Orbital angular momentum quantum number (along internuclear axis)

Mat

Attenuation coefficient for 7 rays

Ve

Frequency; also kinetic rate; also symbol for electron neutrino

Ve

Electron, antineutrino

CT

Absorption cross section, also nuclear reaction cross section

T

Mean-life

T

Residence time

*

Primary quantum yield

$

Overall quantum yield

2,4-D

2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

2,4,5-T

2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid

A

Ampere; electric current

A

Activity (in radioactive decay); also mass number; also Arrhenius preexponential

factor

A

Angstrom

ABS

Alkylbenzenesulfonates

amu

Atomic mass unit

atm

Atmosphere

BOD

Biological oxygen demand

Bq

Becquerel (1 disintegration per second)

Btu

British thermal unit (1 054 J)

BWR

Boiling water reactor

c

Speed of light in vacuum (2.998 x 108 m/s)

C

Coulomb; also Celsius (as in °C)

C

Concentration

CAFE

Corporate average fuel economy

cal

Calorie

CFC

Chlorofluorocarbon

Ci

Curie; 3.7 x 1010 disintegrations per second

COD

Chemical oxygen demand

CP

Heat capacity at constant pressure

CTBT

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

D

Dose of ionizing radiation

DDE

Dichlorodiphenylethylene; 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p- chlorophenyl)ethylene

DDT

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane; 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2- bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

DOC

Dissolved organic carbon

DOE

U.S. Department of Energy

DU

Dobson unit

E

Energy; potential

Ea

Arrhenius activation energy

EC

Electron capture (nuclear process)

ECCS

Emergency core cooling system (nuclear reactor)

EDTA

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

Eg

Band gap

Eh

Cell potential on the hydrogen scale

Standard potential

EPA

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

eV

Electron-volt

exp

Exponential; exp(y) = ey

F

Faraday constant, 96,485 coulombs

ft

Foot

g

Gram; also molecular symmetry designation, gerade (even)

G

Free energy; Gibbs function

gal

Gallon

GWP

Global warming potential

Gy

Gray = 100 rads

h

Planck's constant (6.626 x 10~34J ■ s)

H

Enthalpy (not to be confused with the symbol for hydrogen, roman H)

hc

Hydrocarbon

hcfc

Hydrochlorofluorocarbon

heu

High enrichment uranium

hfc

Hydrofluorocarbon

hfe

Hydrofluoroether

hlw

High-level waste (radioactive)

hwr

Heavy water reactor

I

Radiation intensity

IC

Internal conversion (nuclear process)

ilw

Intermediate-level waste (radioactive)

IT Isomeric transition (nuclear process)

J Joule

J Total angular momentum quantum number of an atom k Boltzmann constant (1.381 x 10~23 J molecule^KT1);

also rate constant

K Kelvin

K Equilibrium constant

Ka Acid dissociation (ionization) constant

Kb Base dissociation (ionization) constant keV Thousand electron-volts kg Kilogram

Ksp Solubility product constant

Kw Ion product of water

L Net electronic orbital angular momentum quantum number

LAS Linear alkylsulfonates

LD50 Lethal dose for 50% of the population

LET Linear energy transfer

LEU Low-enrichment uranium

LLW Low-level waste (radioactive)

LMFBR Liquid metal fast breeder reactor

LOCA Loss of coolant accident (nuclear reactor)

LWBR Light water breeder reactor

LWR Light water reactor m Meter, mass

M Molarity (mol/dm3)

MeV Million electron volts

MH Metal hydride mi Mile mol Mole of substance

MON Motor octane number

MOX Mixed oxide (Pu and U oxides)

MRI Magnetic resonance imaging

MTBE Methyl i-butyl ether

MTHM Metric ton of heavy metal

MWd Megawatt-day

MWe Megawatts of electricity

MW, Megawatts of heat (t = thermal)

N Neutron number, also number of atoms

Na Avogadro's number; 6.023 x 1023 particles

NOj Nitrogen oxides

NPT Non-Proliferation Treaty

NRC U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; also National Research Council

ODP Ozone depletion potential p Proton

P Pressure

Pa Pascal

PBB Polybrominated biphenyl

PCB Polychlorinated biphenyl pE Negative log of electron activity (a measure of redox potential)

PET Poly(ethylene terephthalate); also position emission tomography

PFC Perfluorocarbon pH Negative log of H+ activity (approx. concentration)

POC Particulate organic carbon ppb Parts per billion ppbv Parts per billion by volume ppm Parts per million ppt Parts per trillion pptv Parts per trillion by volume

PSC Polar stratospheric cloud

PVC Poly(vinyl chloride)

PWR Pressurized water reactor q Heat; also electric charge

Q Energy in nuclear reactions; also quality factor (for ionizing radiation)

r Rate of reaction

R Roentgen

rad Radiation absorbed dose (10.0mJ/kg)

RBE Relative biological effectiveness

RBMK Reactor high-power boiling channel nuclear reactor (Soviet)

rem Roentgen-equivalent man (a measure of radiation dose)

RON Research octane number s Second; also spin quantum number for an electron

S The solar constant; also used for entropy and net spin angular momentum of an atom

SNF Spent nuclear fuel

Sv Sievert, dose equivalent (ionizing radiation)

T Absolute temperature (K)

i1/2 Half-life

Tc Critical temperature

TCDD 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin

Teff Effective half-life

TMI Three Mile Island

TOC Total organic carbon

TRU Transuranic waste u Molecular symmetry designation—ungerade (odd)

U Internal energy

UV Ultraviolet radiation; < 400 nm

UV-A Radiation in the range 400-320 nm

UV-B Radiation in the range 320-290 nm

UV-C Radiation in the range 290-200 nm

V Volts

V Volume, potential energy VOC Volatile organic compound w Work

W Watts

WL Working level (for exposure to a particles from radon progeny)

wr Radiation weighting factor wt Tissue weighting factor

Z Collision frequency; also atomic number

Z' Specific collision frequency

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