Thermal Breeder Power Plants [LWBRs

Breeding of nuclear fuel also can be achieved in an LWR by using 233U as the fissile material and 232Th as the fertile material. The nuclear power plant in Shippingport, Pennsylvania (footnote 32), was operated at a power level of 60MWe (net) from 1977 to 1982 to demonstrate the feasibility of breeding of 233U in an LWR. Much of the technology that will be needed in the distant future when the 233U—232Th fuel cycle becomes a competitive source of energy is now known.

36The second nuclear-powered submarine that was built in the United States, the USS Seawolf, was equipped with a sodium-cooled, beryllium-moderated reactor (not designed as a breeder). This submarine was launched in 1955.

TABLE 14-9

Number of Nuclear Power Reactors by Type That Existed and the Number 0perational Worldwide at the End of 2000

TABLE 14-9

Number of Nuclear Power Reactors by Type That Existed and the Number 0perational Worldwide at the End of 2000

Type

Total

Operational

Pressurized light water

289

256

Boiling light water

98

92

Gas cooled

32

32

Heavy water

52

43

Graphite moderated, light water cooled

14

13

Liquid metal, fast breeder

5

2

490

438

Source: World list of nuclear power plants, Nucl. News, 44(3), 61 (2001) (revised annually).

Source: World list of nuclear power plants, Nucl. News, 44(3), 61 (2001) (revised annually).

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