Relaxation Techniques

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Relaxation Mechansims

This section discusses mechanisms by which relaxation takes place. Dipole-Dipole Relaxation. As hinted in the discussion above on T2 relaxation, dipolar interactions provide an important relaxation mechanism. This mechanism involves the communication of different spins through space via their dipoles. As molecules tumble in solution, the orientation of the nuclear dipoles changes with respect to the external magnetic field. This reorientation influences how these dipoles associate with surrounding dipoles, causing fluctuations within the local magnetic environment, inducing alternative pathways for relaxation, and hence, increasing relaxation. The more remote the spin is from other spins, the less of an effect dipole-dipole interactions will have, and the longer it will take for this more isolated spin to relax.

Spin Relaxation

As with any other form of spectroscopy, an entity in an excited state must return to the ground state. The same holds for NMR however, the full description of the relaxation picture is a little more complex than in the case of optical spectroscopy. On the whole, relaxation processes in NMR spectroscopy are much longer than in other spectroscopic techniques, and serve as another illustration of how isolated nuclei are from their surrounding environment. Long relaxation processes allow one to manipulate nuclear spin, as illustrated by the sophisticated pulse sequences used in NMR spectroscopy. It should also be stated that, when discussing rates in the context of spin relaxation, by convention, we commonly use spin relaxation times rather than rates.

Steinkopff Prize 1993 recipient Duan Vudelic

Dusan Vucelic was born July 17, 1938 in Belgrade, where he completed a Master of Science degree at the Faculty of Physical Chemistry of Belgrade University in 1964. In 1970, he received his doctorate in Physical Chemistry, his thesis being NMR Relaxation of Molecules at Interphases, a field with only a few publications at that time. Subsequently, he became assistant professor of solid state physical chemistry at Belgrade University. Since 1981, Dusan Vucelic has held a full professorship in Physical Chemistry of Solid State and Molecular Biophysics. He spent most of his scientific life at Belgrade University and at the Research Institute of General and Physical Chemistry, of which he was the principal founder, with the exception of three short periods in 1976, he worked at the Inorganic Department of Oxford University, Great Britain in 1980, at the Magnetic Resonance Laboratory of Stanford University, USA, and in 1991 as a visiting professor at the School of Physics,...

Photolysis In The Environment

Indirect Photolysis

The excited state of a molecule is short-lived and may undergo various physical or chemical relaxation processes. Physical relaxation processes, such as vibrational energy loss, energy transfer to another species, or emission of a photon lead to the regeneration of the parent compound. Only those processes that lead to chemical changes in the parent compound lead to a decrease in the concentration of the species being photolyzed. Such transformations may include fragmentation, isomerization intramolecular rearrangement, H-abstraction, dime-rization polymerization, and electron transfer. The fraction of chemical transformation events per photon absorbed is defined as the quantum yield (F) for that process. This value may range from 0 to 1, but values between 0.0001 and 0.1 are common for compounds that are photodegraded on reasonable time scales (half-lives of minutes to days). The first-order rate constant for the transformation is given by

Modelling and Analysis Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Gambar Denah Sistem Elektrik

The segregated solver was used for the solution and the flow was assumed to be laminar and steady. Under-relaxation factors were required for both pressure and velocity equations. An interesting feature of the solution technique is that the angular velocity of the journal surface is varied in steps. The converged solution of the first step is used as the start point for the next step. The step size of the angular velocity is determined by halving the full angular velocity, which is again halved and so on. The halving process is stopped if it is determined that there are sufficient number of steps. If the step size is too small it may lead to unnecessary computations. It is necessary to arrive at a solution by varying the angular velocity in steps because of the curvature of the bearing surfaces. The solution is converged if the normalised residuals are of the order of 1 x 10-3.

CoPrecipitation Synthesis

Active functional groups could be inserted on the starch skeleton by oxidizing the carbohydrate with periodate, NaIO4, which induce the cleavage of the glucose rings and the formation of polyaldehyde-starch coating layers (Jiang et al. 2009 Yang et al. 2009). The average diameters of magnetite particle cores, obtained through a co-precipitation route, is ca. 8 nm, the peroxidation treatment having no influence over their crystal structure. The change of the chemical environment of the surface atoms has effect on the relaxation behaviour of the iron oxides.

CAS Removal [

Flux is mentioned as a control parameter in membrane filtration affecting the permeate quantity, quality and membrane fouling rate. Additional data regarding the flux influence on micro-pollutants can assist in controlling their removal rates. A higher flux which is obtained by higher filtration intensity is expected to increase the fouling rate on the membrane surface (for the same filtration regime), due to higher colloid loadings to the membrane surface (critical flux phenomena) and overall increase in particles concentration inside the membrane tank. The results from system III (Figure 9) indicated that the applied operation conditions resulted in a significant difference of the fouling rates. The module with the highest gross flux (module 2) showed the highest fouling rate (1.2-1, 011 1 m d) which was almost an order of magnitude higher compared to the lowest fouling rate of module 3 (2.4-1,010 1 m d). The fouling rate of module 1 (7.2-1,010 1 m d) was between module 2 and 3....

Solution Technique

We start by assuming a pressure distribution at the internal grid points. The film thickness at each grid point is evaluated and then Reynolds equation is integrated between the boundaries determined by Eq. 13.16. The pressure distribution is obtained by successive over-relaxation scheme. To compute the pressure numerically, the initial pressure distribution is taken to be zero at all the grid points and iteration is started. After each iteration the computed grid pressures are modified by the over-relaxation factor. The solution is supposed to have converged if it satisfies the convergence criterion. The value of the over-relaxation factor chosen determines the speed of convergence. The over-relaxation factor is selected by trial and error and a value of 1.57 gives a good rate of convergence for the present analysis.

Signal Intensity

Where N is the amount of sample, Q is the probe quality factor, y is the nuclear magnetic strength (gyromagnetic ratio), B0 of laboratory magnetic field is the strength, T2 is longitudinal relaxation (see discussion below), T is the absolute temperature, tmax is the data acquisition time for each transient, and Tc is the recycle time between transients. This equation demonstrates three important issues involved in obtaining an acceptable SNR from an NMR experiment, due to the inherently low sensitivity of NMR (1) the higher the gyromagnetic ratio of the nucleus under study, the higher the SNR (2) the higher the static field, the better the SNR (unless other factors, such as anisotropy, are at play, as can be the case for 19F) and (3) the higher the concentration, and hence natural abundance of the nucleus under investigation, the higher the SNR.


Unlike the nuclei discussed so far, deuterium has a nuclear spin of 1 rather than 1. It is therefore a quadrupolar nucleus, meaning a nucleus with a spin greater than 1. As a whole, the dominant relaxation mechanism for such nuclei is via quad-rupolar relaxation, which, in turn, simplifies the interpretation of relaxation data for deuterium. It should also be noted that deuterium has a relatively small quadrupolar moment, and hence, a small linewidth factor. It also has a rather low receptivity in comparison to other quadrupolar nuclei (Harris 1987). Liquid State. Nanny and co-workers (Nanny 1999 Nanny and Maza 2001) studied the association of deuteriumlabeled monoaromatic compounds with dissolved NOM, taking advantage of the fact that the quadrupolar relaxation mechanism dominates the relaxation of deuterium nucleus under their experimental conditions. The results from the first study (Nanny 1999) revealed no differences in the T values for phenol in the presence and...

Real World Samples

Real-world solid matrix sorbates are complex mixtures. In SMNOM-oriented studies the remainder of the solid matrix plays a support role literally (as discussed in Section and figuratively. The focus of this discussion will be on the figurative role and its elimination. Solid matrix sorbates consist of a range of components, which can be broken down into biological, inorganic and organic, as discussed in Section 13.2.1. As a whole, the living biological component is viewed as a nuisance in association-based studies and is eliminated with either HgCl2 or NaN3. Either treatment affects the SMNOM however, this alteration is considered acceptable. Another nuisance within the matrix is due to its inorganic components. These components are problematic for two reasons (1) they dilute the SMNOM, and thus, limit AOCs loading, and hence, lower the SNR of the NMR experiments and (2) there are inorganic paramagnetic centers, which are of great concern from the NMR perspective as they...

Focused Beam Sources

A variation of MRI called functional MRI (fMRI) is becoming widely used to provide tomographic images of neural brain activity. Changes in blood flow in small regions of the brain can be identified when the patient carries out a mechanical task, responds by visual recognition, responds to music, and so on. In this technique a radiofrequency excitation pulse increases the magnetic energy of the nuclei (protons) in the sample. The measured time (relaxation time) required for the pulse to decay exponentially as these nuclei return to their initial energy states depends on the magnetic properties of nuclei in nearby molecules. Since bound oxygen 160 (spin 0) in blood affects the relaxation time, it can be used to measure blood flow.


In fact, several types of double layer interactions are possible during an encounter between two charged particles. Lyklema 34 has illustrated important possibilities during a Brownian encounter. For a particle with a diameter of 1 am in a 0.1 M solution of 1 1 electrolyte, the time for an non-retarded Brownian encounter is about 10 5 s. Considering hydrodynamic retardation, Lyklema raises this estimate to 10 4 s. This time is considerably longer than the equilibration or relaxation time of ions in the interacting diffuse layers, estimated to be about 10 8 s. Rates of adjustment of surface layers (e.g., Stern layers) to the encounter can be considerably longer. For an Agl sol, Lyklema estimates a relaxation time for a Stern layer of 10 3 s this may be the time to transfer a charge determining ion across the interface. It is considerably longer than the Brownian encounter. As a result, two Agl particles with constant potential surfaces may undergo a constant charge interaction during a...


These results, when combined, would indicate that hydrogen bonding is involved in atrazine association with NOM and that this hydrogen bonding favors the association of atrazine with NOM, overriding hydrophobic partitioning into a range of organic solvents. The second study was aimed at determining if atrazine associated with NOM was water-accessible or buried within the NOM assemblage. It was found that the aqueous soluble Gd relaxation agent yielded no change in linewidth and T2, while the hydrophobic relaxation agent TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidiny-loxy) yielded a large increase in linewidth and hence a profound decrease in T2 of the fluorine-labeled atrazine. These results strongly implied that atrazine associated with NOM interacts with deeply buried (in regard to the aqueous interface) hydrophobic domains within the humic acid. However, even within these hydrophobic pockets, hydrogen bonding between atrazine and the NOM is taking place, as implied by the previously...


The control of b-agonists misuse received extra attention after outbreaks of food poisoning in 1990 in Spain caused by consumption of bovine liver. This was the first time that pharmacological residues found in slaughtered cattle were found to have caused acute intoxication in consumers. As therapeutic drugs, they have been first used as a bronchodilator for the treatment of pulmonary diseases in humans and animals. b-Agonists act specifically by binding to cell membrane b-receptors, and therefore, by activating the adenylate cyclase-cyclic AMP system. Physiological responses to stimulation of the b-receptors are increased lipolysis and reduced lipogenesis in adipose cells, increased glycogenolysis, increased protein synthesis and reduced proteolysis in striated muscle fibres, and vasodilatation, bronchodilatation and relaxation of smooth muscle fibres. Although clenbuterol is still probably the most popular b-agonist illegally used on farms, other b-agonists have been pointed out on...

Relaxation Audio Sounds Lazy Summer Day

Relaxation Audio Sounds Lazy Summer Day

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