References

1 EEA, European Environment Agency (2007) Estimating the environmentally compatible bioenergy potential from agriculture. EEA Technical report, n.12 2007. materials. Total Qual. Environ. Manag., 5 (4), 69-84. 5 Graedel, T. and Allenby, B. (1995) Industrial Ecology, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 2 R sch, C., Skarkaa, J., Raabb, K., and Stelzer, V. (2009) Energy production from grassland-assessing the sustainability of different process chains under German conditions. Biomass 6 Hawken, P.,...

Conclusion

Roland Ulber, Thomas Hirth, and Dieter Sell For different reasons, there is a rising interest in the area of renewable resources over the last few years. On the one hand, there is a widespread perception that a competitive industrial production for the future must be affected by sustainability and consequently worldwide political incentives and regulations in favor of renewable resources are on the agenda. On the other hand, it is an accepted certainty that oil, coal, and natural gas are...

Other Therapeutic Proteins

PMPs are not restricted to vaccines and antibodies. There are a number of enzymes with medicinal applications that have been produced in plant cells, such as gastric lipase (for the treatment of cystic fibrosis), lactoferrin, and lysozyme (both with antibacterial properties). These latter two have been found in trials to aid recover from childhood diarrhea 84 . A number of human growth factors and cytokines, proteins that regulate cell division and differentiation have also been expressed in...

Vaccines

Vaccines are used to elicit a protective immune response without the accompanying disease process, and single proteins specific to pathogens (subunit vaccines) are increasingly used for this purpose, usually being administered by injection to induce a systemic immune response, but when these are administered orally, they can elicit IgA in the mucosa, an important route for pathogen ingress. The concept of using plants to produce vaccines is particularly attractive not only because of the...

Sugar Crops

Sugar crops deliver mainly two types of sugar which can be used for industrial purposes - sucrose, a disaccharide composed by one glucose and one fructose monomer, and inulin, a polysaccharid. The latter can be obtained from topinambur (Helianthus tuberosus) but is only of minor commercial importance. One example for such an application is the production of diets for diabetics 10 . The main species to deliver sucrose are sugarcane and sugar beet. Cane sugar and beet sugar are both sucrose...

Glycerol

The rapid increase in biodiesel production in the world has resulted in the availability of large quantities of glycerol by-product. The importance of valorizing this by-product is an urgent commercial and scientific challenge as the European biodiesel industry is being crippled by subsidized US biodiesel imports 33 . Glycerol can be used as a building block for many commodity chemicals such as 1,3-propanediol, lactate, and succinate esters. In fact many companies have initiated commercial...

Fatty Acid Derivatives

Photosynthetically active organisms are the only ones being able to synthesize tocopherols and tocotriols. These compounds are essential to mammalian organisms as precursors to vitamin E, and protecting polyunsaturated fatty acids from peroxidation. From the recent elucidation of their biosynthetic pathway 47 , it is now possible to improve the vitamin E content of plants by genetic engineering, thus improving the nutritional value for food and feed purposes. Vitamin A is one of micronutrients...

Monoclonal Antibodies

Medical monoclonal antibody production is a multi-billion dollar industry and at the forefront of modern medicine. They can be used for diagnostic or for treatment purposes. Such antibodies are usually produced in mammalian hybridoma cells, which are expensive to grow and harvest ( 10000 g purified protein). By contrast, it is estimated that recombinant plant-produced antibodies may cost one-tenth of that to produce, and less if expression levels are high enough. The first instance of antibody...

Introduction Why Life Cycle Analysis of Biobased Products

One major reason for the interest in biobased products is their potential contribution to mitigation of climate change biobased products are made from renewable resources-products from agriculture, forestry, or biogenic waste-which, during their growth, take up the same amount of CO2 as is released by biological degradation or energetic conversion in the end of the product' s life. This is a generic advantage compared to the use of fossil resources, which releases the inventory of carbon...

Example Alkenes from Petroleum Fractions and from Bioethanol

The method outlined in Section 5.3.2 is used in the following to assess the economic perspective for producing low- boiling alkenes from bioethanol instead of from petroleum fractions. Biomass-based ethanol can be used in this way as raw material for chemical products, especially to produce polymers. The current world production of ethene and propene is mainly covered by the petrochemical route based on steam cracking, that is, thermal pyrolysis of petroleum liquids (naphtha, gas oils) and...

Outlook and Perspectives

The area of biobased products represents a major new market opportunity for domestically grown biomass resources 1 ) It will be a new source of revenue for not only those who produce the feedstocks, but also for the farmers and others who are involved in the production of biobased products themselves. Continued research can significantly increase opportunities for biobased products, expand existing markets, and open entirely new markets. Currently, markets for bioprod-ucts are wide ranging,...

Cultivation and Harvesting for Selected Types of Renewable Raw Materials 4311 Agricultural Production

The configuration of an agricultural production is dependent on the crops to be grown as well as the conditions provided by the environment where growth should take place. Every crop has specific demands regarding soil- and climate- related factors such as nutrients, water, or temperature. Some references to this were already made in Section 4.2.2. Besides, plants also differ in the length and in the timeframe of their life cycle. They are accordingly classified as annual, biennial, and...

Definition

The terms biobased and biobased products will be used very often in this chapter and it is therefore essential to understand what is meant by them. There are many definitions around in the technical and scientific community and in the public and they all not always mean the same. In the United States, the Department of Agriculture defined biobased products as commercial or industrial products other than food or feed that are composed, in whole or in a significant part, of biological products or...

Biofuels

Driven by the boost of biofuels worldwide, a large number of LCA studies has been carried out on this group of biobased products. Biobased fuels are generally assessed in comparison to petrochemical fuels, where the reference products are gasoline, diesel, and natural gas. In addition, process chains for several biofuels are compared to each other, differing in technology and raw materials. Results are reported for fuel production only (well-to-tank analysis), or including fuel efficiency and...

Starch Crops

Cereals are the most important crops for human nutrition. Besides, they provide a further possible source for energetic as well as material utilization of renewable raw materials. With starch, they deliver a glucose polymer consisting of amylose-and amylopectin molecules. There are already numerous existing utilization pathways for starch, mainly in the food and feed chains but also for industrial applications. The use of cereals for energetic and industrial purposes is from an ethical point of...

New Raw Materials for White Biotechnology

As discussed in Section 5.2 and shown in Table 5.3, the common substrates used in industrial microbiology will be sufficient for today's industrial microbial production processes, but will be far away from meeting the demands for the production of biofuels and bulk chemicals in future. Further on, it will be necessary to use mainly only those substrates which will not be in competition with food or animal feed. Therefore several alternative raw materials substrates have already been discussed...

Oil Crops

Fatty oils are esters of glycerin (glycerol), the simplest triol, and fatty acids, car-boxylic acids with chain lengths from C4 to C24. The group of plants that produce fatty oils as storage matter is heterogenic. Some of them have been domesticated for a long time in various parts of the world with many subspecies and hybrids used for vegetable oil delivery. Therefore, oil crops are not limited to a single taxo-nomic family but are found among Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, or Palmae, for...

Sorbitol Acid SBA

Sorbitol acid can be produced in yields close to 100 from glucose via hydrogenation. This makes it very interesting as a chemical for industrial use in the food and nonfood sectors. Every year 350 000 tonnes of SBA is manufactured by companies such as Cerestar-Cargill, Roquette, and Tate & Lyle. For example, isosorbides can be synthesized from SBA via dehydration and can form polymers, which have similar properties to polyethylene. Polylactic acid, a popular biodegradable plastic currently...

Forest Production

Unlike the production of annual agricultural crops forest production lasts several decades. Depending on tree species and forest management regime rotation periods (time between stand establishment and final cut) of 80 to 200 years are common practice in European forestry. The time span between management operations usually averages a couple of years. Hence, compared to agriculture input of energy, machinery and materials are low for forest production. The following chapters give a short...

Lignocellulosic Biomass

Wood is by far the most used and versatile lignocellulosic biomass and hence is in the main focus of this section. Other lignocellulosic biomass like grasses and lignocellulosic residues are compared to wood of minor importance but nevertheless shortly described. The main sources of wood are trees of natural and seminatural forests as well as forest plantations. 3.95 billion hectares of forests and forest plantations cover round about 30 of the land surface 26 . The largest forests are situated...

Industrial Biotechnology Today Main Products Substrates and Raw Materials

Industrial biotechnology including fermentation and biotransformation processes is used to produce a wide range of bulk and fine chemicals like ethanol, lactic acid, citric acid, amino acids, biopolymers, secondary metabolites, and vitamins for many years. As a very important part, the fermentation technology makes use of various microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and very recently of algae) to convert mostly carbohydrate-based substrates and raw materials to products for an application...

Levulinic Acid

Acid-catalyzed dehydration ofsugar feedstocks from lignocellulosic biomass waste produces levulinic acid in yields of 20-25 . The production involves a one - step process using 4.5 hydrochloric acid in water and a temperature of 200 C for 45 min 28, 29 . The yields can be further improved up to 70 by employing a novel two-reactor system. In this case, sulfuric acid is used with feedstocks from agricultural residues, paper sludges, and organic municipal waste. The method has been validated by...

Biopolymers

Although there has been a broad interest in biopolymers since many years and ample literature on technological processes exists, there is only a limited number of LCA studies on these groups of biobased products. A comprehensive survey has been carried out in 2005 in a study commissioned by European Commission's Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (JRC) on Techno-economic Feasibility of Large-scale Production of Bio-based Polymers in Europe 29 . The study...

Functional competition of biobased bulk chemicals with fossilbased

When making the transition from petrochemical to biobased produc- Figure 5.3 Steps in the development of a microbial industrial process based on Patel et al. 2 . Figure 5.3 Steps in the development of a microbial industrial process based on Patel et al. 2 . Table 5.2 The 13 key plant carbohydrate-derived building blocks identified in the EU BREW project based on Patel et al. 2 . Table 5.2 The 13 key plant carbohydrate-derived building blocks identified in the EU BREW project based on...

Limitations and Research and Development Potential

Autotrophic microalgae as well as heterotrophic yeasts, bacteria, and fungi implicate limitations for a commercial SCOs production process. An overview is listed in Table 5.12. The main reasons are the costly downstream process of the SCOs and the high costs of carbon sources for heterotrophic microorganisms. The relation between the costs for carbon sources 1 4 of the product oil and the stoichiometry of carbon to oil conversion is not efficient. Theoretical calculations reveal that 33 g oil...

Fine Chemicals and Drugs

The development of modern human culture was made possible due to the intensive use of plants and plant products as valuable sources for nutrition, commodities, and energy. However, only recently we have come to see plants as a cornerstone of sustainable industry by exploiting lead structures and biosynthetic pathways for the modification of plant-derived renewable resources. It is most important to note that usage of plant enzymes and their biosynthetic abilities is not restricted to the use of...