Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma When a patient is sensitised to airborne allergens, exposure to those allergens can trigger the immunoglobulin E (IgE) pathway of the immune system causing allergic rhinitis (inflammation of the nasal passageways) or allergic asthma (upper respiratory tract broncho-constriction). Rhinitis and asthma frequently coexist in the same patient and both diseases are increasing in prevalence in the general population. Organic dust rhinitis and asthma are not caused by a single allergen present in the dust different allergens may be responsible in different patients.29'58-60 Workers handling compost are often exposed to higher levels of allergens than the general population and the species to which they are exposed may differ.
Matte discussed the World Trade Center Health Registry, which allowed for longitudinal follow-up of populations impacted by the World Trade Center attack. The registry included more than 70,000 of an estimated 400,000 eligible residents, employees, students, passers-by, and others enrolled between 2003 and 2004. Through periodic follow-ups, linkages with health records, and nested studies by outside researchers, the registry has been used to document persistent respiratory illness and mental health problems. In addition to providing information, the registry also provides links to services. Unfortunately, the registries were limited by available exposure and baseline-health measures. Additionally, the data and findings may not be representative of all eligible individuals.
Human vanadium poisoning symptoms are mainly restricted to the conjunctivae and respiratory system, renal and gastrointestinal irritation. Exposure can thus give rise to conjunctivitis, rhinitis, pulmonary inflammation resulting in bronchitis and asthma-like diseases, and dysfunctions of the digestive system. The limit value for immediate danger to health for an average human is about 7 mg V in the case of intravenous application, and 35 mg V m-3 in breathing air. The following compilation lists selected official exposure limits (MAC) and LD50 LC50 values. MAC refers to the maximum allowable concentration at the workplace (40-h week, 8-h time-weighted average). LD50 and LC50 indicate the level of a harmful substance (in mg per kg body weight) causing the death of 50 of the test animals by oral (LD) or inhalative (LC) administration, respectively.
Some generalized effects of common air pollutants and their possible relationship to these diseases are of interest. Sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid in low concentrations irritate the lungs, nose, and throat. This can cause the membrane lining of the bronchial tubes to become swollen and eroded, with resultant clotting in the small arteries and veins. Children are more susceptible to coughs, colds, asthma, bronchitis, and croup. Carbon monoxide can affect the cardiovascular system in high concentrations, the heart, brain, and physical activity can be impaired. It can reach dangerous levels where there is heavy auto traffic and little wind. Smokers are at greater risk. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning causes a lowered concentration of oxygen in the blood and body tissues. (See the discussion on carbon monoxide poisoning earlier in this chapter.) Ozone and other organic oxidants, known as photochemical oxidants, are produced by the reaction of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in...
Adverse birth outcomes, 103, 116 Aerated static piles, 74 Air pollutants, classical, 174 Air pollution control, 163 Allergenic fungi, 80 Allergic asthma, 84 Allergic rhinitis, 84 Alternar a spp., 84 Ambient air quality standards, 182 Ambient bioaerosol levels, 91 Arsenic, 185 Ash residues, 163 Aspergillosis, 80, 99 Aspergillus spp., 78 Aspergillus fumigatus, 79 Asthma, allergic, 84 Atmospheric dilution, 131 Atmospheric modelling, 131 Ragweed pollen, 98 Reclamation, 31 Recycling, 33, 63, 168, 169 Reduction of waste volume, 172 Refuse-derived fuel (RDF), 25, 58 Relative risk, 121, 123 Rhinitis, allergic, 84 Rhizopus spp., 84 Risk assessment, 94, 129
Toxicity, acute condition Adverse effects occurring shortly after the administration or intake of a single or multiple dose of a substance (oral rat LD50). Conditions classified as acute include viruses, colds, flu, and other respiratory conditions headaches, gastrointestinal disorders, and other digestive conditions accidental injuries genitourinary disorders diseases of the skin and other acute conditions. A condition that has lasted less than three months and has involved either a physician visit (medical attention) or restricted activity.