Traditional Soap Making

Guide To Creating Spa Products

The handcrafter's companion is a program designed to help everyone regardless of whether they have ever tried the making soap on their own and failed or whether they are newbies. This program uses step by step guide which contains information easy to read, understand and successfully apply to make your home-made soaps and spa treatments. All the techniques applied in this program have undergone through testing and results have proven that they work efficiently to guarantee you 100% positive results. When you enroll in this program, you will not strain in wondering where you will get the raw materials, how to package your product or where to supply the products as all these are already in place. This program has many benefits attached to it some of them being to ensure that your skin glows naturally and you save on the cost you could have otherwise spent on spa treatments. More here...

Guide To Creating Spa Products Summary


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Soaps Synthetic Surfactants And Polymers

People Leader Clip Art

Soaps, surfactants and polymers are discussed together, following the discussion of petroleum, because most of the polymers and the surfactants in detergents are made mainly from chemicals derived from petroleum. Natural fats and oils are also used in the manufacture of surfactants (Figure 7-1). Soaps and surfactants contain segments of linear or lightly branched hydrocarbon chains that are, in the main, broken down to acetate up on metabolism by microorganisms in the environment. The biodegradation of petroleum occurs by the same pathway once a terminal carbon has been oxidized to a carboxyl grouping. The rate of degradation by other environmental reagents such as sunlight, oxygen, or water is much slower than that of microbial degradation. Toilet soaps Shampoos FIGURE 7-1 Surfactants for household detergents petrochemical raw materials and uses. Redrawn from Soaps and Detergents, Susan Ainsworth, Chem. Eng. News, Jan. 24, 1994. Used by permission of SRI Consulting. Also see color...

Sustainability Environment and Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials currently or will soon include nano-engineered titania particles for sunscreens and paints, carbon nanotube composites in tires, silica nanoparticles as solid lubricants, and protein-based nanomaterials in soaps, shampoos, and detergents. Industrial applications currently being marketed include the use of alumina nanoparticles in the manufacture of propellants, pyrotechnics, and ceramics membranes, nanoparticles in semiconductor manufacture, and numerous biomedical applications. If the current trend in commercial ventures continues, we will soon find ourselves with a relatively large nanomaterials industry. Our vantage point early in the trajectory of this industry confers upon us a particularly promising opportunity to get this technology right and ensure that nanotechnologies emerge as a tool for sustainability.

Low Dosage Hydrate Inhibitors

More recently, LDIs have been found to cause severe health problems when oxidized. The most commonly used anti-agglomerants are surfactants such as alkylbenzene sulphonates (ABS) and alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APnEO). The most widely used kinetic hydrate inhibitors are poly N-vinyl pyrrolidone or poly vinylmethylacetamide vinyl caprolactam (Mokhatab, Wilkens, and Leontaritis 2007). However, these are not the only types of surfactants, and there are other more widely used forms of them. The earliest known surfactants are soaps, and they have been manufactured for thousands of years. Soaps are basically sodium salts of natural, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids formed from the alkaline hydrolysis of animal and plant triglycerides (fats and oils). The equation for this reaction is as follows Sulphonates, like soaps and sulphates, are anionic surfactants, and they have a negatively charged hydrophile. They are among the most popular surfactants, and the alkylbenzene sulphonates are...

STC Bison 308 and 508

STC Bison 308 and 508 are solutions for treating oil and grease contaminants. According to the vendor, they can neutralize petroleum-based oil and grease by converting petroleum hydrocarbons into nontoxic soaps through a saponification process. Further, the vendor states that STC Bison 308 and 508 solutions can be used to remediate hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Remedial Concepts claims that the oils and greases are converted into cleaners and detergents that are safe enough for disposal into any sewage system The vendor claims that the solution

Sustainable Energy Development

Bienaventuranzas Explicacion

Different technologies that are sustainable for a long term and do not produce any greenhouse gases are presented. Technology plays a vital role in modern society. The use of thousands of toxic chemicals in fossil fuel refining and industrial processes that make products for personal care, such as body lotion, cosmetics, soaps, and others, has polluted much of the world in which we live (Chhetri et al. 2006 The Globe and Mail 2006). Present day technologies are based on the use of fossil fuels for primary energy supply, production or

Boron and Plants

Abstract Boron is found naturally in the earth's crust in the oxidized form as borax and colemanite, particularly in the oceans, sedimentary rocks, coal, shale, and some soils. It is never found in the elemental form in nature possessing a complex chemistry similar to that of silicon, with properties switching between metals and non-metals. Boron has become an important and strategic element in terms of developing technologies. It is released into the environment mainly through the weathering of rocks, volatilization from oceans, geothermal steam, burning of agricultural refuse and fuel wood, power generators (coal oil combustion), glass industry, household use of boron-containing products (including soaps and detergents), borax mining and processing, leaching from treated wood and paper, chemical plants, and sewage sludge disposal, but a major proportion originates from the weathering of rocks. Boron is regarded as an essential element for human beings, animals and plants. Boron...

Chlorinated Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products

An expanding array of substances called 'Endocrine-disrupting compounds' (EDC) include chemicals of natural and anthropogenic origin. EDCs are widely distributed in the environment. They constitute a potential health risk to humans and aquatic life. Only a couple of EDCs are covered here. Triclosan is one such synthetic antimicrobial compound that is present in a wide range of health care products, such as tooth-paste, deodorant sticks and soaps. It has been detected in various environmental matrices due to its low degradation by conventional wastewater treatment processes. The fact, that triclosan shows remarkable toxicity towards bacteria, makes white rot fungi interesting candidates to test for biodegradation of this compound. Triclosan was degraded by seven strains of white rot fungi including P. chrysosporium ME 446, P. magnoliae, T. versicolor, I. lacteus, P. ostreatus, P. cinnabarinus, and D. squalens, while B. adusta was the only organism included in the screening that did not...

Musk Concentrations in Cosmetics and Household Products

According to surveys on the use of musks in fragrance products conducted by the industry, the most important source of exposure are skin creams because of their retention in the skin, followed by hydroalcoholic products (eaux de toilette) which have a high concentration of musk containing fragrances 5, 6 . On the other hand hygienic products such as soaps and bath foams, which are applied on large body area, will be washed off and are probably less important dermal source of musk compounds 6 .

Alkaline Earth Metals Beryllium Magnesium Calcium Strontium and Barium

Magnesium and calcium ions are extremely common in natural water systems, with calcium carbonate (limestone) and dolomite CaMg(CO3)2 being two widespread natural sources. Solubility in water is influenced by pH and CO2 content. The two ions are responsible for the hardness of water, which manifests itself by precipitation with soaps, the calcium carbonate deposits that form when water is heated (boiler scale), and so on. For many purposes (washing, waters for certain heat exchange processes), the precipitates formed by calcium and magnesium ions are obnoxious, and the ions must be held in solution by chelation or removed by ion exchange processes or precipitation in a way that prevents the formation of harmful products. Both magnesium and calcium are essential elements needed in significant amounts by living organisms. Except in the context of the problems just noted, they are not harmful either in solution or as particulate material.

Other Biogenic Residues

Vacuum distillation allows fractionating CTO into a rosin acid-rich component, known as tall oil rosin (TOR) and a fatty acid rich component, known as tall oil fatty acids (TOFAs). TOR is industrially used as adhesives additive and emulsifying or binding agent, for example, 15, 42 - The TOFA fraction which is rich in oleic and linoleic acid - 15 is regarded as a potential vegetable oil replacement for the production of biofuels and oleochemicals. However, sufficient purification is challenging. In Europe, TOFA still containing a rosin acid content is currently produced in Scandinavia as intermediate for the production of alkyd resins, dimer acids, soaps or coatings, for instance 41 .


Surfactants (Fig. 23) represent one of the major and most versatile groups of organic compounds produced around the world 314 . Their main uses are industrial, 54 (cleaning products, food, and industrial processing), household, 29 (laundry, dishwashing, etc.) and personal care, 17 (soaps, shampoos, cosmetics). The worldwide production in 1988 315 was 2.8 million tons. Surfactants, natural 316,317 or synthetic, change the solubility and physico-chemical state of other environmental micro-constituents 318, 319 and influence their accumulation and spreading at phase boundaries 320 .

Traditional Uses

Petroleum is the dominant feedstock for the modern chemical industry. However, renewable raw materials are still preferred in those sectors where substances derived from biomass provide higher quality or more cost- effective products. Examples include the use of wood pulp for paper production, cotton production for textiles, the use of linseed oil for surface coatings and linoleum, and the use of coconut and palm oils for detergents and soaps 6 . In each of these cases, there is no economically viable synthetic alternative of equivalent function. However, in contrast to petrochemical products, these remain relatively niche, specialist materials. Cotton fibers perform well as part of a fabric, but are of little use in other materials. If agriculture is to supply a larger part of the chemical industry, it must be capable of providing generic chemical building blocks that can be used in a wider variety of applications.


Wood ash is a very rich source of silica and an important source for industrial applications. The ash also contains various minerals such as potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, and others. Conventionally, ash has been used as a source of fertilizer because of its high mineral content. It is a truly natural detergent. Sodium or potassium can also be extracted from wood ash and used as a saponification agent for making soap from vegetable oils and animal or fish fats. A fine wood ash is a very good raw material for making non-toxic toothpaste. Chhetri and Islam (2006a) reported that wood ash can be extracted to use as a natural catalyst for the transesterification of vegetable oil in order to produce bio-diesel for a diesel substitute. Rahman et al. (2004) reported that maple wood ash has the potential to adsorb both Arsenic (III) and Arsenic (V) from contaminated aqueous streams at low concentration levels without any chemical treatment. Static tests showed up to 80 arsenic removal,...

Ch Ocor2 Ch2 Ocor3

Mannekote et al. 18 , performed tribological experiments on fresh vegetable oil and aged vegetable oil samples. The results indicated that the more saturated fatty acid containing vegetable oils like coconut and palm oil showed less wear scar diameter than less saturated fatty acids containing vegetable oils like castor and sunflower oils, due to their boundary lubrication capabilities. Whereas, for coefficient of friction more unsaturated fatty acid containing vegetable oils resulted in less coefficient of friction than less unsaturated fatty acids. This result is attributed to the formation of oxidation products like free fatty acids upon ageing which facilitate the formation of metallic soaps, thus reducing the coefficient of friction 18 .


These naturally occurring fatty acids contain linear hydrocarbon chains, which are synthesized biochemically from the acetate ion (CH3C0 ). They are also readily degraded back to acetate by microorganisms in the environment. Since long-chain ( fatty ) acids occur naturally, it is not surprising to find some foam and suds at waterfalls, the surf at the beach, and other places of turbulence in streams, rivers, and oceans owing to the presence of natural soaps in the water. present in water make it hard. This curdy, gray precipitate leaves a deposit on clothes or ring around collars or bathtubs. Not only are the deposits undesirable, but greater amounts of soap must be used to make up for that lost by precipitation. Another disadvantage of soaps is that they are salts of weak acids that protonate in mildly acidic solutions. The polarity of the head of the detergent decreases when protonated and, as a consequence, the product's effectiveness at solubilizing oils and greases is diminished....

Health Concerns

Naturally occurring aluminum has a very low toxicity to humans and animals. Only a few industrially important aluminum compounds, such as the fumigant aluminum phosphide, are considered acutely hazardous. Exposure to and ingestion of aluminum and its compounds is usually not harmful. Aluminum compounds are used in water treatment to remove color and turbidity, food packaging, medicines, soaps, dental cements, and drugstore items, such as antacids and antiperspi-rants, and are present in many foods because they are grown in soils containing aluminum.

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