The principles of x-ray microscopy are presented in detail by Schmahl et al. [6] and in the accompanying article in this volume [7].

Preparation of the monocationic clay sample:

Na-montmorrilonite was prepared by washing the clay (after removing particles larger than 2 pm), three times with 1 M solution of sodiumchloride. Excess salt was removed by washing the clay with distilled water until the supernatant was free of chloride. The salt free clay was freeze dried and resuspended in distilled water. The coagulating agents were added according to their desired concentration.

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