Electrodialysis with A Nonstationary Field

Electrodialysis as a method of demineralization of natural and wastewater is ecologically expedient and economically profitable. However, the use of ion-selective membranes is complicated by the phenomenon of concentration polarization, which

Figure 4.8 Scheme of the novel MAFBR.

is caused by a difference between the ion transfer numbers in the solution and in the membranes. Applying an electric field with special pulse characteristics can diminish the effect of the concentration polarization.

A theoretical analysis has been carried out for galvanostatic and potentiostatic pulse regimes [27]. The idea that developed is a bit the same as backflushing with pressure driven-membrane operation such as microfiltration or ultrafiltration. The time dependencies ofthe extent ofthe concentration polarization near the membrane surface during the pulse are described theoretically for both pulse regimes and a qualitative discussion of the pause duration is presented. The main characteristic of the non-stationary process is the transition time between the state without polarization and the state with stationary polarization.

In principle, the electrodialysis process can be intensified significantly when the applied pulse is sufficiently smaller than this transition time. Experimental results qualitatively support the model predictions. The desalination can be intensified several times, depending on the pulse-pause characteristics.

4.5 Safe Management of Membrane Integration in Industrial Processes: A Huge Challenge | 273

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