Emas

Objectives of EMAS. (Source European Commission Environment Directorate-General.) improvement of the level of its environmental performance. ISO 14001 only requires the continual improvement of the management system, with the implied improvement of the environmental performance. EMAS requires organizations also to undertake an initial environmental review and to actively involve employees in implementing EMAS. Further differences are listed in Table 4.5. If an organization is...

Designing Products for Environmental Sustainability

As a result of senior management support over the course of the past eight years, GSK has been able to systematically develop a suite of tools and methodologies to assist the business and R& D in moving towards more sustainable business practices. Given the nature of the Pharmaceutical Industry, where processes are locked in two to three years before a product reaches the market, the only hope of changing what is done is to design sustainability into new product processes within an R& D...

Joel Tickner

Lowell Center for Sustainable Production, University of Massachusetts - Lowell While we have known for decades that many industrial chemicals are toxic, mounting evidence indicates that some of these chemicals play a role in the onset of diseases including cancer, developmental and behavioral disorders, respiratory ailments and asthma, neurological disorders, and birth defects, among others. Despite evidence of health effects linked to chemical exposure, a great majority of the chemicals found...

References

Agence France-Presse, Bayer to Cut 1,800 Jobs, Close 15 Sites, Agence France-Presse, August 9, 2001. Available at factiva database. N. A. Ashford, Chemical Catastrophes Steps for Prevention, New York Times, December 9, 1984, Business Section, p. 2. D. Austin and A. Sauer, Changing Oil Emerging Environmental Risks and Shareholder Value in the Oil and Gas Industry, World Resources Institute, 2002. Available at D. Austin, N. Rosinski, A. Sauer and C. Le Duc, Changing Drivers The Impact of Climate...

Agnes M Shanley

Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Magazine You can't put a dome over a chemical plant, but you can take reasonable steps to keep it safe Since September 11, and the discovery of Al Qaeda's experiments with chemical weapons, the chemical industry has made tremendous strides in improving the security of its facilities, infrastructure, and IT. Chemical production plants pose a potentially huge security risk. According to the U.S. EPA, acts of terror at any one of 123 plants nationwide could threaten...

FLASC Fast Lifecycle Assessment for Synthetic Chemistry

While investigating and developing the GSK approach to Green Chemistry and technology, a multiyear investigation into the lifecycle inventory (LCI) of a typical active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) was undertaken. This was necessarily an extended investigation given that there was a tremendous lack of data available for those materials generally found in the supply chain of an API. In addition, data in most commercial software is generally not that transparent or modular that is, one cannot...

Pamela Cohen Kalafut and Jonathan

There is no question in my mind that business and the free enterprise system are essential to making sustainability work. Our focus at Dow is on hard-wiring it into our company in the same way we have fully institutionalized environment, health and safety into our culture and into our work and people processes. Our challenge is to make sustainability sustainable. Ultimately, the world will judge our commitment to sustainability not by what we say, but by what we do. William Stavropoulos, CEO of...

Convergence of Nonprofit Groups Environmental and Public Health Agendas

Environmental Protection Agency was pulled together from portions of the then Department of Health, Education, and Welfare and other departments in 1970, the foundation was laid for a bifurcated approach to public health issues in the United States. Environmental groups tended to focus their attention on the new EPA. In contrast, public health advocacy groups, groups devoted to specific diseases, and state and local health departments continued to focus their attention on HEW (now...

Richard A Liroff15

A remarkable change has occurred in the last fifteen years in scientific knowledge about development, molecular biology, and toxicology. This burgeoning information raises serious questions about the adequacy of existing methods for assessing risks from man-made and naturally occurring chemicals. Hormone disrupting 15Richard A Liroff, a political scientist, is Senior Fellow in the Toxics Program at World Wildlife Fund in Washington, DC. The opinions expressed here are his own and not...

WwwunglobalcompactorgPortal

UN Global Compact is an initiative proposed by Secretary General Kofi Annan to bring companies together with UN agencies, labor, and civil society to support nine principles in the areas of human rights, labor and the environment. Special Features Human rights, labor, and environment. UN Global Compact is a voluntary corporate citizenship program endorsed by more than 1100 corporations worldwide it is the largest CSR initiative in the world. Users Companies, UN agencies, national governments,...

Drivers of Corporate Social Responsibility

Credibility and trust are everything in business. Corporate social responsibility first caught the attention of the public in the late 1960s and early 1970s, following a host of moral failings including neglecting consumer safety, bribing government officials, polluting the environment, exploiting child labor, and even toppling governments in developing countries (Paine, 2003). Angry Americans, whose mistrust in corporations was fueled by the belief that corporations only listen to complaints...

Scott Berger

American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Given the greatly increased focus on industrial and public security in the years since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, few would disagree that sustainability and security are closely linked. Without much imagination, one could put forward the hypothesis that a sustainable manufacturing process that consumes few, if any, material or energy resources and that uses more benign materials would contain nothing usable by a terrorist. At best,...

The Meaning of Bhopal for Investors

The 1984 Bhopal disaster, involving a catastrophic failure at a Union Carbide pesticide manufacturing plant, represents a serious problem for Dow with the potential to damage the company's reputation. Over 14,000 deaths, and 50,000+ permanent injuries have been attributed to the event and its aftermath by Indian government officials. It has been the source of ongoing legal battles in both India and the United States. This case study covers the existing and potential financial and reputa-tional...

Mitchell Mathis

Houston Advanced Research Centre (HARC) What is the value of nature Philosophers, ethicists, theologians, and a wide spectrum of social and even natural scientists have responded to this question with a variety of answers based on an equally varied set of frameworks and approaches. These responses are often categorized as either anthropocentric, in which value is derived from some form of interaction with humans, or biocentric, in which nature and the organisms of which it is comprised have...

TABLE 52 Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry

Maximize the integration of all process materials into the finished product 3. Use and generate substances with little or no toxicity 4. Design chemical products with less toxicity while preserving the desired functions 5. Minimize auxiliary substances (e.g., solvents, separation agents) 7. Prefer renewable feedstocks over nonrenewable ones 8. Avoid unnecessary derivations and minimize synthesis steps 9. Prefer selective catalytic reagents over stoichiometric reagents 10. Design products for...

Marianne Lines

This book's focus on the chemical industry reflects the industry's prominent role in the global economy and society. The chemical industry is very diverse, producing thousands of substances that are present in countless products. No longer associated with just commodity chemicals, plastics, and additives, chemical companies have made significant forays into consumer care products, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, agribusiness, and many other sectors that touch upon almost every aspect of our...

History of the Bhopal Case

In May of 1982, Union Carbide inspected its pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, and found 10 major deficiencies (Lueck, 1984 Ashford, 1984). The facility had been losing money for two years already and in the four years before the accident it lost a total of 4.5 million and the company was looking to sell it (Lueck, 1984 Ashford, 1984). Charges in the pending criminal litigation assert that Union Carbide was guilty of culpable homicide not amounting to murder. Many issues of fault have been...

Peter H Spitz

A combination of factors is bringing about a major change in world patterns of chemical trade, with negative consequences for the traditional chemical producers, who are facing stiff competition from newer producers in the Middle East and Asia. This comes at a time when there is a growing world sentiment to advance Sustainable Development (SD) issues. While some advances towards SD will, in fact, help traditional producers become somewhat more competitive, their drive to achieve the lowest...

Who Should Use SD Planner TM

SD Planner TM is designed for use by a variety of different groups within a company. It is optimized for use by a business unit, but it can also be used by a corporate group on behalf of the company as a whole. Typically, a functional group will assume a TABLE 4.3. Stages of Sustainable Development TABLE 4.3. Stages of Sustainable Development lead role for applying the tool, and a specific individual or team will be responsible for actually entering information and generating results. However,...

Corporate Sustainability Learning Curve

To business, sustainability thinking is really about creating new knowledge, connecting the dots differently, mining through the plethora of information and data points that all firms have available, but looking at them differently with respect to management decision-making. This almost always requires connecting different functional areas, working between business silos. A company moving along the sustainability learning curve must extend the boundaries of consideration from traditional EHS...

Discussion of the Principles

The optimal design of a product or process will be one in which the design considers the unit as a system, which in turn is part of a larger system. What is a system A system is a collection of objects that receive inputs from the external environment and or from other objects of the system, and transforms the inputs to outputs (Olson, 2005). The system consists of the object being analyzed, plus any inputs and outputs thus, it is imperative to identify system...

The Eco Efficiency Analysis

Regarding SD tools, one of BASF's core competencies lies in the field of eco-efficiency analysis. In simple terms, eco-efficiency describes how environmentally friendly and economical a product or process is. BASF, together with an external partner, began to develop the instrument based on the conceptual work of Schalteg-ger and Sturm (1994) as early as 1996. In the meantime, the method has matured and around 230 products and production processes have been analyzed to date. Half of the...

The Bhopal Disaster

On the night of December 2-3, 1984, water leaked into a tank containing methyl isocyanate (MIC) at the Bhopal, India, pesticide plant of Union Carbide India, Ltd. The resulting runaway reaction vaporized an estimated 30 to 40 tons of MIC, releasing a massive toxic cloud of methyl isocyanate gas.45 The cloud drifted across Bhopal, a city of some 900,000 residents at that time. The estimates of casualties vary somewhat depending on the source. However, the dense slums that sprawled right up to...

Addressing the Challenge of PBTs

Finding solutions to the problem of PBTs in commerce depends on the ingenuity and expertise of chemical industry leaders, and of entrepreneurs in other industries who can devise product alternatives that are PBT-free or as close to that as possible. Examples of equally challenging innovation provide encouragement that the same inventiveness that brought us the chemical advances that contribute so much to today's quality of life can likewise meet the challenge posed by these hazardous chemicals....

Author Biographies

Abraham, Martin received his BS in chemical engineering in 1982 from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and his PhD in 1987 from the University of Delaware. After nearly 10 years at the University of Tulsa, he joined the chemical engineering department at the University of Toledo, serving as Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Studies in the College of Engineering from 2000-2004 and currently as Dean of the Graduate School. Dr. Abraham has over 60 refereed publications and nearly 100...

Karen L Coyne

A key component of developing and implementing a sustainability program within an organization will entail a periodic review of that program focusing on How are we doing and Where do we need to make improvements These are two basic tenets behind the management system function known as auditing, which helps an organization determine how they are doing in their journey along the path to sustainability. Before embarking on a sustainability audit, the support and involvement of the CEO is essential...

Karen L Coyne CPEA14

A key component of developing and implementing a sustainability program within an organization will entail a periodic review of that program focusing on How are we doing and Where do we need to make improvements These are two basic tenets behind the management system function known as auditing, which helps an organization determine how they are doing in their journey along the path to sustain-ability. This section will describe what the audit process is and how an organization may audit against...

Jeff Weinrach

Several years ago, New Mexico embarked on a strange, yet wonderful, odyssey - the Green Zia Environmental Excellence Program. The Program (Green Zia) was designed to take the successful elements of the Malcolm Bal-drige Criteria for Performance Excellence and state Quality Awards Programs such as Quality New Mexico, which utilize the Baldrige Criteria, coupled with the principles of pollution prevention (P2) and Environmental Management Systems (EMS) and develop an...

Security Vulnerability Analysis 6531 Introduction

Step 3 Decide Which Approach to Vulnerability Analysis to Use. Security vulnerability analysis (SVA) is the activity of identifying how potential terrorists can breach security at your site in order to impact an asset and cause a terrorist event. In this context, asset can mean a piece of equipment, a store of product, a key building, a computer system, a person, or anything else of importance to your company or organization. Security is vulnerable when three factors coexist (a) an identified...

Can Sustainability Prevent Terrorist Attacks

By this point, it should be readily apparent that even the most sustainable product or service, made by the most efficient and green manufacturing process, can still be subject to a terrorist attack. Indeed, if we accept that sustainability includes meeting societal needs, then a process or product that can best meet the needs of society but is not available to all may well be the biggest target of a terrorist who does not have access to that process or product. In this case, even though the...

Expansion of Environmental Management Systems to Address Sustainability

At the very basic level, a management system provides a structure that allows an organization to systematically manage a particular issue by Defining, assessing and understanding the issue within its boundaries Planning and implementing controls and improvements and Monitoring and evaluating performance of associated efforts. These functions of a management system are reflected by specific processes, procedures, and tools necessary to manage the relevant issues. 4.3.1.1 Broadening the Scope of...

Thomas C Pasztor

The transparency inherent in sustainability reporting goes directly to the issue of trust in public corporate relationships at a time when this issue is front and center in everyone's mind. Many sustainable practices have long been ingrained in PotashCorp's culture and values. However, before the Company published its first Sustainability Report in 2003, there was no central place or common voice for communicating its efforts, progress, and remaining challenges in sustainable development....

Examples of How Sustainability Leaders in the Chemical Industry View Value

It would be presumptuous to attempt to describe the many different ways in which chemical companies have created significant shareholder value through environmental strategies.28 My purpose here is to offer a few examples that illustrate the 26There are a number of summaries of this research. For example, see http www.figsnet.org, Dinah Koehler, Capital Markets and Corporate Environmental Performance Research in the United States, and Donald Reed, Green Shareholder Value, Hype or Hit World...

The Business Case For Sustainable Development

The key question asked by companies considering pursuit of sustainability practices is what is the business case - a profit or shareholder value case - that can create justification for allocating resources and the attention of corporate boards and executives. As was written in Walking the Talk Holliday et al., 2002 , companies tend to get involved in activities long before they can prove the business case for doing so. But the case is emerging and, although the corporate response is fragmented...

Beth Beloff Dicksen Tanzil and Matthew Retoske

Societal costs constitute an important element of the costs of environmental impacts from industrial activities, although they often fall outside the private calculation of costs and benefits to a company. Most of these costs, such as health and property damages due to pollution, usually belong in the category of societal costs or external costs borne by society at large. In this chapter, we look at the nature of the societal cost element of Total Cost Assessment TCA , how it is a cogent...