The Natural Thyroid Diet

Thyroid Factor

Thyroid Factor is a program that was created by Dawn Sylvester to help women deal with thyroid issues. Dawn Sylvester is a 57 years old lady that has worked with 1,000's of real women. She has over the time tried to investigate the underlying reason why majority of women lose energy and also struggle with belly fat and fatigue as they age. It is a comprehensive program thatcomprises of Thyro pause, 11 kinds of thyroid saving foods that will work to help you boost fat burning Free T3. The program also teaches you all the hidden causes of thyroid which are making you fat and later a highly reliable Thyroid reboot plan which is an excellent plan you need to tackle your weight. Additionally, there are tips to reduce bulging fat fast and eventually obtain a healthy body. You also get several bonuses all aimed at helping you solve all the problems that comes with being overweight. The three bonuses you get are 21 Day Thyroid weight loss system, 101 Thyroid boosting foods and Thyroid Jumpstart Guide. Continue reading...

Thyroid Factor Summary

Rating: 4.9 stars out of 27 votes

Contents: Ebooks
Official Website:
Price: $37.00

Access Now

My Thyroid Factor Review

Highly Recommended

Recently several visitors of websites have asked me about this ebook, which is being promoted quite widely across the Internet. So I ordered a copy myself to figure out what all the excitement was about.

All the modules inside this e-book are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

The Natural Thyroid Diet

The Natural Thyroid Diet can help you get the nutrition your thyroid needs. And when your thyroid is working better you will have more energy and it becomes much easier to lose weight. Find out why soy foods can actually harm your thyroid. Discover why going gluten free may not be a perfect dietary solution. Identify & treat the underlying factors that are driving your thyroid problem. Find out how to get a real medical diagnosis with specific pathology tests. How to assess your thyroid activity at home with a simple testing procedure. Find out which specific nutrients help enhance natural thyroid activity. Discover why iodine is such a critical mineral for the thyroid. Reduce thyroid stress & skyrocket your metabolism with a few simple activities. Learn about reverse T3 dominance & how to treat this common thyroid problem. How to detox your home to reduce the toxic load on your thyroid. Find out how to interpret the medical test results from your doctor. Get a natural thyroid diet with actual daily meal plans and food lists.

The Natural Thyroid Diet Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Louise O'Connor
Official Website:
Price: $14.95

Antithyroid agents

Action of these compounds is characterized by the inhibition of the thyroid gland function causing a decreased production of thyroid hormones, i.e., L-thyroxine (T4) and L-triiodothyronine (T3). Administration of thyrostatic drugs to cattle results in a significant increase in live weight-gain mainly consisting in the development of the gastro-intestinal tract and higher water retention in animal tissue. As a consequence, the meat is characterized by an inferior quality, mostly wet and colourless. Thyrostats can be divided into two main groups

Chemical Hazard Assessment

Validated through the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD),5 that are designed to address different toxic endpoints by various exposure routes. Testing for general toxicity may extend from acute (short-term, i.e. one or a few days) to chronic (greater than 13 weeks) while, in some cases, reproductive effects may be investigated over two generations or more. Where exposure via the air is expected to be important, the inhalation route may be used in the toxicity testing if skin contact is likely, assessment of irritation and sensitization potential is likely to be included. An aspect of much current uncertainty as to its toxicological significance is endocrine disruption, by which a substance has the potential to interact with, or otherwise adversely affect, hormonal systems.6 To some scientists, endocrine disruption is an important toxic endpoint in its own right, while others see it simply as a perturbation in normal physiological processes that may or may not...

Applications of FISH

Since radiation is thought to cause equal levels of damage across all chromosomes,15 and chromosomes 1 through 6 (the largest chromosomes) make up 40 of the genome,16 it is hypothesized that measurement of damage in these large chromosomes can be extrapolated to the whole genome.11 This may not be true for chemical exposures as certain chemicals may have selective or preferential effects on certain chromosomes.17 For example, we showed that epoxide metabolites of 1,3-butadiene had more effect on certain chromosomes than others.18 Indeed, the hypothesis of equal levels of damage across the genome may not hold true even for low doses of radiation, as inversion of chromosome 10 has been shown to be highly sensitive to low intensity radiation exposure.19 Interestingly inv(10) rearranges the RET gene and is associated with thyroid cancer, potentially caused by linear energy transfer (LET) radiation.

Ecotoxicological Effects of Endocrine Disruptors

The effects that can be seen in an organism exposed to an endocrine disrupting chemical depend on which hormone system is targeted. In an organism exposed to sex hormone disrupting pesticides in the womb, effects on sexual behaviour, structural deformities of the reproductive tract, including intersex type conditions, eficits in sperm counts, and effects on sex ratios are mainly observed. If, primary action is on the thyroid hormones, then as these hormones are responsible for metabolism and normal brain development, exposure in the womb may cause effects on intelligence and growth. Laboratory tests have confirmed that endocrine disrupting chemicals do indeed cause such effects in exposed animals, but all the effects listed above have also been noted in wildlife or humans heavily exposed to endocrine disrupting pesticides or industrial chemicals. Some endocrine disruptors may exert their action by interfering with the brain's release of hormones, which in turn regulate the production...

Organic Pollutants and Endocrine Disruptors Future Prospects

Progestins, and corticosteroids apart from the sex hormones and thyroid hormones. There is also involvement and interest of many other signaling processes besides hormone messengers. The fact that, although chemicals can be shown to bind to certain receptors in test tube experiments, it is occasionally not easy to elucidate whether the adverse effects that they cause in animals are in reality mediated mainly by the endocrine system, further complicates the situation. Wildlife will be particularly susceptible to the endocrine disrupting effects of pesticides, since these chemicals are intentionally released into the environment. Effects associated with endocrine disruption have been noted in invertebrates, reptiles, fish, birds, and mammals living in polluted areas, but although most are linked to exposure to organo-chlorines, it is always not easy to tie down particular causal agents with surety. Humans exposed occupationally are also at increased risk, and there are studies linking...

Ongoing epidemiological studies that include biomarker measurements

This project is designed to replicate and extend previous findings by studying a highly exposed cohort of infants, and using infant tests that have the potential to provide information regarding possible mechanisms of action. 300 Inuit infants from Nunavik and Greenland will be assessed at birth, 6 and 11 months of age. The impact of PCBs and methylmercury exposure on newborn's thyroid hormones, physical growth, immune system function, physical and neurological maturity, overall health, mental, psychomotor and neurobehavioral development, and visual and spatial information processing will be studied. This research will also provide the opportunity to per

List of Abbreviations

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), a group of xenobiotic lipophilic pollutants, are semivolatile, bioaccumulative, persistent and toxic (Jones and de Voogt 1999). Organochlorines (OCs) such as PCBs and chlorinated pesticides (such as HCHs and DDTs), PAHs and PBDEs represent an important group of POPs that have caused worldwide concern as toxic environmental contaminants. In 2001, the Stockholm Convention on POPs acknowledged these as global problems. Although the occurrence of POPs at elevated levels is of great environmental concern at contaminated hot spots, the regional and global significance of the problem has received increased attention in the last decades (UNECE 1998 UNEP 2001). They have been reported to cause variety of effects including immunologic, teratogenic, carcinogenic, reproductive and neurological problems in organisms (Kodavanti et al. 1998) and are of considerable concern to human and environmental health. In addition, some congeners have shown some effects on...

Polychlorinated biphenyls

PCBs are a mixture of different chemical compounds. There are 209 possible congeners, depending upon how many chlorines are on the biphenyl ring and where they are positioned. PCBs were manufactured as mixtures with varying percentages of chlorination. The mixture used at the three aluminum plants near Akwesasne was Aroclor 1248, which contains 48 percent chlorine by weight. Aroclor 1248 contains more than 50 individual chlorobiphenyl compounds (congeners) (Figure 35.2 top), but the concentration of each ranges widely. No contemporary method of PCB analysis is capable of measuring every PCB congener. What is shown in Figure 35.2 (top) is the measurement of the amount of 79 different congeners, shown in the order in which they elute from the column, which is roughly related to the degree of chlorination. Each congener has distinct physiological actions on a variety of living organisms, including mammals (particularly humans), birds, and, several lower species such as fish, snails, and...

How Did Perchlorate Become Such A Problem 121 Perchlorate Properties and Behavior in the Subsurface

In December 1998, the USEPA released its first formal draft risk assessment of perchlorate (USEPA, 1998b). A USEPA-sponsored peer review of that draft risk assessment occurred in February 1999 (USEPA, 2002). The peer review panel made a number of suggestions that included completion of studies recommended earlier, additional studies to evaluate the effects of perchlorate on fetal development and a review of existing thyroid histopathology data. Most of the medical knowledge available on perchlorate toxicity has resulted from its use as an antithyroid agent in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Perchlorate had been used for this purpose because it can act to reduce thyroid iodide uptake, thus decreasing the production of thyroid hormones. However, due to its potential toxicity and side effects, perchlorate use for this purpose has been replaced by other drug treatments (Herman and Frankenberger, 1998 NRC, 2005). Although perchlorate is rapidly eliminated from the body, environmental...

Human and Mammalian Toxicology

Dog slight to moderate hematologi-cal effects at mid- and high-doses increased liver and thyroid weights at high-dose (but no histopathological correlation to these changes), histopathological changes in liver, spleen and bone marrow considered secondary to the mild met-hemoglobinema present at this dose. EU and US EPA did not consider the mid-dose effects to be adverse. long-term 24 months rat hematologic effects, liver weight increase, hepatocyte hypertrophy, follicular cell hypertrophy of thyroid at mid- and high-doses males decreased survival females decreased body weight, increased adrenal weights, chronic progressive glomerulonephro-pathy of kidney, hyperplasia of the renal pelvic epithelium, and uremic changes of multiple organs at high dose. 18 months 18 months

Brominated Fire Retardants

Highly brominated organic compounds are common commercial fire retardants. Large amounts of these fire retardants are used worldwide, and because of their persistence, they now are accumulating in the environment and have even been detected in the Arctic, to which they presumably migrated by the LRTAP mechanism discussed above. Based upon animal studies, they may have potential for liver toxicity, thyroid hormone-level disruption, and reproduction and development effects.

Psychological Impacts of Oil Spills The Exxon Valdez Disaster

Because psychological stress can lead to physiological changes and increased risks for chronic diseases, Palinkas and colleagues examined the impact of the Exxon Valdez spill on physical health. As with the psychological outcomes, researchers found that more-exposed individuals reported more heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, thyroid problems, cancer, asthma, ulcers, bronchitis, chronic coughs, and skin rashes (Impact Assessment, Inc., 1990).

Sources Used in Nuclear Medicine

Thyroid function, blood flow, brain imaging Thyroid function Thyroid function Iodine-131 (8.0207d), which concentrates in the thyroid, is used not only diagnostically but also therapeutically to treat patients with hyperthyroidism and other thyroid diseases, including cancer, and after thyroidectomy. The quantities of 131I (as iodide) used for hyperthyroidism are about 222-333 MBq (6-9 mCi). Another radionuclide used for therapy is 32P (14.28 d) (as orthophosphate). It is used in the treatment of polycythemia vera, a condition in which the patient's blood has an abnormally high concentration of red cells. The quantity administered up to about 185 MBq (5 mCi) is limited by the extent of allowable irradiation of the bone marrow.

Chronic Toxicity of DDT and Related Compounds

Reproductive Toxicity Example

These chemicals are administered to some strains of birds, there is a doubling of the size of the thyroid gland. Increased metabolism, pulse, and heart size are indicative of hyperthyroidism. Studies on birds with hyperthyroidism have shown that they delay mating, and lay lighter eggs with thinner shells. Male birds with hyperthyroidism have significantly lower fertility than those that do not. It is not clear at the time of writing if either of these proposals is correct or whether there is yet another explanation for the biological effects of DDT and its degradation products on fowl.

Health effects of PCB exposure

One of the projects in our interdisciplinary effort was a study of adolescents between 10 and 16 years of age who were born during the period when consumption of contaminated fish was common. This study involved obtaining blood determinations of PCBs, thyroid hormones, sex steroid hormones, and routine blood chemistries as well as extensive interviews and psychological and cognitive tests. The first component of this study to be completed19 has focused on the relationship between PCBs in serum and thyroid function. The PCB levels in these children are not excessive by most standards, ranging from undetectable to a maximum of 4.75 ppb in 117 children, with a mean of 1.82 ppb. However, the levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were directly correlated with PCB levels, while the levels of free and total thyroxine were inversely correlated with PCB levels. Though the PCB and the thyroid indicators are within what would be considered to be normal levels, these observations clearly...


A number of experiments where groups of estrogenic, thyroid-disrupting, and antian-drogenic chemicals were combined at low doses have been published in the literature. In all of these studies, well-founded statistical criteria were used to derive low-dose estimates for single compounds (often NOELs), and the experimental power of the chosen assays was sufficient to demonstrate mixture effects of the combinations at their respective NOELs. Crofton et al. (2005) analyzed 18 thyroid-disrupting chemicals in terms of their ability to induce changes in thyroxin levels and observed clear mixture effects (slightly stronger than anticipated by CA) when all chemicals were combined at doses equivalent to their individual NOELs, or even below.

Combinations of Endocrine Disruptors

Endocrine disruptors are a diverse group of chemicals with the ability to interfere with the normal action of hormones. A diversity of mechanisms is at play, ranging from mimickry of endogenous hormones to disruption of normal hormone action by antagonism of receptor binding or interference with hormone metabolism. In the last 10 years, good evidence (reviewed by Kortenkamp 2007) has become available to show that the combined effects of endocrine disruptors belonging to the same category (e.g., estrogenic, antiandrogenic, or thyroid-disrupting agents) can be predicted by using CA. Eighteen studies have been published that were designed to examine the validity of the concept of CA for the predictive hazard assessment of mixtures of endocrine disruptors on the basis of knowledge about dose-response relationships of individual chemicals. These studies investigated 28 different mixtures of estrogenic, antiandrogenic, or thyroid-hormone-disrupting chemicals with 2 to 18 components. Twelve...

Social Sustainability of Nuclear Energy

Deposited mostly in bone), plutonium, and iodine-131. Iodine contamination contributes to the acceleration of thyroid cancers after the idodine is ingested through the air or radiation-contaminated milk. The health effect of the Chernobyl accident was short-term (deterministic) and long-term (stochastic). Out of 499 people that were admitted for observation right after the Chernobyl accident, 237 people suffered from acute radiation effects (Metivier 2007). Out of the 237, 28 died immediately. Ulcer, leukemia, and thyroid tumors were identified in some of them. The long term effects were different types of cancers, including thyroid cancer in children. The soil, water, vegetables, and other foods including milk were contaminated, which showed long-term implications for the health systems. Several patients were reported to have developed mental and physiological problems after the accidents. For a period of 12 years after the Chernobyl accident, thyroid carcinoma increased by 4,057...

Treatment Technology Overview

Blount BC, Pirkle JL, Osterloh JD, Vaentin-Blasini L, Caldwell KL. 2006. Urinary perchlorate and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent and adult men and women living in the United States. Environ Health Perspectives 114 1865-1871. Clewell RA, Merrill EA, Narayanan L, Gearhart JM, Robinson PJ. 2004. Evidence for competitive inhibition of iodide uptake by perchlorate and translocation of perchlorate into the thyroid. Int J Toxicol 23 17-23.

Atsdr Minimal Risk Levels And Worksheets

Groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (40 sex dose) were exposed to vapors of HCCPD at concentrations of 0, 0.01, 0.05, or 0.20 ppm for 90 days (up to 14 weeks) (6 hours day, 5 days week). Following exposure, clinical signs, food and water consumption were monitored daily, and body weights were recorded weekly during the treatment period. Standard blood chemistry, hematologic, and urinalysis parameters were evaluated. Gross necropsy was performed and organ weights (adrenal, brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, ovaries, pituitary, spleen, testes, thyroid, and uterus) were determined. Histopathological examinations of major organs were performed at 4, 8, and after 13 weeks in the control and high-dose groups. There was a slight marginal increase in hemoglobin, red blood cell count, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and a decrease in mean cell volume at concentrations of 0.01 (males), 0.05 (females), and 0.2 (both sexes) ppm after 12 weeks exposure to the compound. These changes may...

Cyanide and Nitrile Pollution

Thiocyanates are other group of compounds formed by the combination of sulfur, carbon and nitrogen. Thiocyanates are found in some foods and plants as they are produced from the reaction of free cyanide with sulfur. This reaction occurs in the environment and in the human body after cyanide is swallowed or absorbed. Thiocyanate is the major product formed from cyanide that passes into the body as the body attempts to get rid of cyanide. Thiocyanates present in water are mainly from the effluents of discharges from coal processing, extraction of gold and silver, and mining industries. The direct application of herbicides (weed killers), insecticides, and rodenticides and from disposal of byproducts from industrial processes also lead to the formation of thiocyanates in soil. The damaged or decaying tissues of certain plants, such as mustard, kale and cabbage also add some thiocyanates into soil and water. Although thiocyanates are less harmful than cyanide in humans yet they are known...

Toxicological aspects of BFRs

PBDEs Generally, the lower BDEs (tri- to hexa-congeners), present in the penta-BDE formulation, are more bioavailable and persistent and, therefore, cause adverse effects at lower doses than the octa- and deca-BDE formulations. Thyroid hyperplasia, decreased T4 levels at 10mg kg body weight (bw) and effects in the liver at 2mg kg bw have been observed in dosing studies with rats. The no-observed effect levels (NOELs) were established at 1 mg kg for penta-BDE, 100 mg kg for octa-BDE, and 1,000 mg kg for deca-BDE 23 . Fetal toxicity teratogenicity has been demonstrated for octa-BDE in rats and rabbits from 2 mg kg bw 24 . Carcinogenicity studies, only performed for deca-BDE, showed increased incidences of neoplastic nodules in the livers of rats at the lowest dose tested (1,200 mg kg bw d) 25 . However, deca-BDE is not listed as human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC) 26 . Of more concern are effects on neurobehavioural development, thyroid hormone...

Estimated 105 Upper Bound Human Cancer Risk 106 Levels for 246TCP

Histopathologic examinations did not reveal any changes in the endocrine glands (adrenals, pituitary, thyroid, pancreas) of rats or mice treated with 2,4-DCP in the diets at doses up to 2,000 (rats) or 2,600 (mice) mg kg day for 13 weeks, or at doses up to 440 (rats) or 1,300 (mice) mg kg day for 103 weeks (NTP 1989). Histopathologic changes of the adrenals were not observed in rats treated with 2,4,5-TCP in the diet at 1,000 mg kg day for 98 days (McCollister et al. 1961). Female rats treated by gavage with 720 mg kg day of 2,4,6-TCP for 90 days had slightly, but statistically significant, elevated adrenal weights compared to untreated controls (Bercz et al. 1990). Because no histopathological changes were noted, this dose is considered a NOAEL. Adrenal gland weights were not increased in male rats treated by gavage with 2,4,6-TCP at 1,000 mg kg day for 11 weeks (Blackburn et al. 1986), providing further support that the adrenal glands are not a target of 2,4,6-TCP toxicity. However,...

Beverley Thorpe

Over the last few years research has shown that people living in North America have levels of brominated flame retardant chemicals (PBDEs) in their bodies 10-70 times higher than the levels of people in Japan or Europe (Betts, 2001). These halogenated chemicals chemically and toxicologically resemble PCBs and are implicated in liver toxicity, disruption of thyroid hormone levels and developmental neurotoxins, particularly in the young. They are now recognized as global environmental pollutants. Rising public concern in the United States resulted in the United States based bromine industry voluntarily phasing out two brominated chemicals. However, the attempt to control more of these chemicals has met with strong lobby from the Bromine Science and Environment Forum, who maintain that their ubiquitous presence in humans, wildlife, and the environment are harmless and that the benefits of these chemicals in fire prevention are more important. Meanwhile, many downstream users,...


There were no statistically significant increases in tumor incidence in rats or mice exposed to atmospheric concentrations of 0.01-0.2 ppm HCCPD for 6 hours day, 5 days week for 2 years (NTP 1994). The incidence of alveolar bronchiolar carcinomas was significantly increased in male mice exposed to 0.5 ppm HCCPD for 26 or 42 weeks, but was within the historical range for the laboratory and, thus, was not definitely compound-related. There was a slight increase in the incidence of adenomas of the pituitary pars distalis in male rats and in thyroid follicle cell adenomas in female mice, but NTP did not consider these tumors to be related to HCCPD administration. On the basis of these data, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that HCCPD is not a carcinogen in either male or female rats or mice (NTP 1994).

Case Studies

The usefulness of the POCIS for monitoring waterborne levels of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) was demonstrated in a collaborative effort between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Methods were developed to use the pharmaceutical POCIS configuration to sample the prescription pharmaceuticals azithromycin (a common antibiotic), fluoxetine (an antidepressant), levothyroxine (used in thyroid replacement therapy), omeprazole (an anti-ulcer agent), and the illicit drugs, methamphetamine and MDMA (or Ecstasy). The field component of this study involved deploying the POCIS in the treated effluents of three municipal WWTPs located in Nevada, Utah, and South Carolina for 30 days during the summer of 2002. To determine seasonal differences in the presence and concentration of these chemicals, a second deployment was performed at the Nevada plant during the following winter.

The Halogens

Chlorine and the heavier halogens form a number of oxo acids and their salts, of which hypochlorite, ClO-, mentioned earlier is one. Another that has raised some concern is perchlorate, ClO4 . This has been found in groundwater in some western U.S. states, especially in areas where ammonium perchlorate was produced as a rocket fuel. It also receives use in fireworks and matches, and recently it has been found as a contaminant in a number of fertilizer brands in amounts up to 0.84 . The health concerns are its potential for blocking iodide uptake and disrupting the function of the thyroid. The per-chlorate ion is very inert under environmental soil conditions, persisting for decades. It is also poorly adsorbed by soils, hence is quite free to enter groundwater. The heavier halogens bromine and iodine are much less common than chlorine in natural waters, but they are concentrated from seawater by seaweed. Iodine in particular is essential to thyroid function and is often added as an...

Richard Liroff

The saga of brominated flame retardants offers a cautionary tale for the chemical industry.65 These chemicals, developed in the early 1970s, are used in a wide range of consumer products, such as furniture, foam, and plastic casings of electronic devices. In 1998, Swedish scientists reviewing archived human breast milk samples discovered that certain flame retardant chemicals (polybrominated diphenyl ethers, or PBDEs) had doubled in concentration in Swedish breast milk about every five years over the preceding twenty. This was a source of concern, as studies of laboratory animals had shown that PBDEs disrupt thyroid hormones. Such disruption yields neurobehavioral effects similar to those of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), whose manufacture the United States banned in 1976.


The presence of drug and pharmaceutical residues in the environment is not acceptable, as they can produce changes that potentially threaten the sustainability of the ecosphere on which our chemocentric civilization depends. Some organisms playing crucial roles in the functioning of ecosystems are targeted by pharmaceuticals, resulting into adverse ecological effects (Nikolaou et al. 2007). The environmental risk assessment (ERA) is calculated in terms of a risk quotient (RQ), which is usually calculated by comparing estimated environmental exposure with estimated environmental toxicity (Hernando et al. 2006). A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study attempted to correlate structure with activity using statistical approaches. By using estimation software for prediction of physical properties and environmental fate (EPIWIN), relative hazards for algae, daphnids, and fish can be estimated for various pharmaceuticals. A prediction has been offered for anxiolytic...

Alkyl Phenols

Most known facts about endocrine disruptors is how they impede with one or a combination of steroid hormones (the estrogens, androgens, progestins, and corti-coids) and thyroid hormones, including thyroxine. Within this group, attention has been focused on the environmental estrogens - the synthetic and plant compounds that affect the natural estrogen hormones, chiefly the potent and widespread estra-diol, which regulates reproduction. A wide range of invertebrates (coral, lobster, snails, and starfish) and all the vertebrates produce estradiol (Cheek et al. 1998). Altering this hormone could affect a large section of the Earth's organisms. Most of the research on endocrine disruptors has focused on impairments to reproductive potential, perhaps because this aspect is sensitive and also easily observable. Nevertheless, recent workers have raised the likelihood that endocrine disruptors also distress thyroid function and also they can have deep but subtle effects on memory and...


Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food, UK 1992). A draft report released for public comment in September 1994 by the US Environmental Protection Agency clearly describes dioxin as a serious public health threat. The public health impact of dioxin may rival the impact that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane had on public health in the 1960s. According to the USEPA report, not only does there appear to be no safe level of exposure to dioxin, but levels of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals have been found in the general US population that are at or near levels associated with adverse health effects. The most toxic compound is 2,3,7,8-tetra-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The toxicity of other dioxins and chemicals like PCBs that act like dioxin are measured in relation to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The concept of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalency (TEQ) was developed in order to simplify risk assessment and regulatory control (Eadon et al. 1986)....

Basic Compounds

The most important and extensively studied pesticides of this group (Fig. 10, Table 3) are Amitrole and several members of the family of s-triazines 89,151, 153,155,156 .Amitrole had been widely used as a herbicide, but its uses as a registered product for application on food crops were canceled starting in 1971 because it was suspected of inducing thyroid tumors in rats 157-162 . Amitrole is soluble in water, with a weak basic character (PKb 10) and behaves chemically as a typical aromatic amine.

Animal Metabolism

Lantern Cut Out Template

ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination) studies in rats indicate spinosad and spinetoram are rapidly absorbed, extensively distributed among tissues and extensively metabolized. Highest spinetoram concentrations were found in the gastrointestinal tract, fat, carcass and liver.130 For spinosad, key tissues were perirenal fat, liver, kidneys and thyroid.103,127 Fecal excretion was the major route of elimination, while urine was a minor route. Rat metabolism studies for spinosad showed no major differences between the bioavailability, routes or rates of excretion, or metabolism of spinosyn A or spinosyn D. Low (

Richard A Liroff15

Hormone disruption refers to a chemical's ability to mimic or block the action of the body's own hormones, or its ability to interfere with normal hormone production or breakdown in some way. Chemicals that are able to disrupt sex and thyroid hormones have been particularly under the spotlight, but other hormones, such as those of the adrenal gland, may also be subject to disruption. The overall result appears to be damage to reproductive, immune, and nervous systems, and increases in birth defects, selected cancers, and learning disabilities. For the last three decades, there has been a disconcerting increase in the incidence of such human health disorders as breast cancer, testicular cancer, hypospadias (a birth defect where the urethra does not open at the end of the penis) and learning disabilities.


Most of known thyrostats or thyroid-inhibiting compounds are thionamides which are small molecules derived from TU or mercaptoimidazole. These substances show a goitrogen activity, thanks to their thiocarbamide group which inhibits the normal metabolism of the thyroid gland and causes a decreased production of thyroid hormones. The consequent hypothyroidism increases the growth rate of the animal although the observed weight-gain is mainly the result of water absorption and retention within edible tissue as well as filling of the gastro-intestinal tract 70-71 . of the thyroid gland 77 to various methods based on TLC 78-80 , GC using nitrogen-phosphorus detection, flame photometric detection, or MS detection 81-82 and HPLC using either UV 83 or electrochemical detection 84 . More recently, methods based on LC coupled to MS have been published. Detection performances of the different published methods were 50 mg L in urine using GC-MS, 20 mgkg-1, for six different thyrostats, in thyroid...

Endocrine Disrupters

The class of chemical which has received most attention from environmentalists in recent years is endocrine disrupters. These are substances which cause adverse effects in an organism or its progeny by interacting with hormonal (endocrine) pathways, especially those involved in reproductive and thyroid gland function.