Replace Toxic Products in your home

Everyday Roots

This book includes home remedies, natural beauty recipes and Diy household product tutorials. Discover over 215 suprising natural home remedies using common ingredients like onion, lemons and apple cider vinegar. EveryDay Roots will help you to make healthy changes in your life. Learn how to treat coughs, headaches and other health conditions with common ingredients like honey and watermelon. When you buy the book you get a 328 page Pdf with a clickable table of contents. Read more...

Everyday Roots Overview


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Types of Organic Pollutants

Approximately one-half of the industrially produced organic chemicals reach the global environment via direct and or indirect routes, for example agricultural practices, municipal and industrial wastes, and landfill effluents. These products include a variety of pesticides and their metabolites, aliphatic and aromatic organic derivatives of petroleum hydrocarbons and plastics, organic solvents and detergents, phenols, PCBs, and organotin compounds. When these substances reach the natural environment, various degradation and transfer processes are initiated. The chemical properties of each organic compound (such as molecular structure, volatility, ionic charge and ionizability, polarizabil-ity, and water-solubility) determine which processes predominate. Currently the prevalent opinion is that interaction processes, leading to activation in-activation, physical sorption, and or chemical binding or partitioning are among the most widespread and important phenomena affecting toxic...

Enzymes of Halophiles

Halophilic enzymes are unusually stable than their normal counterparts. It has been proven that many halophilic enzymes are polyextremophilic. These enzymes not only remain active and stable in high salt environments but are also thermotolerant and alkaliphilic (Moreno et al. 2009) . These properties made halophilic enzymes attractive for various biotechnological applications. Gomes and Steiner (2004) have reviewed potential of enzymes of extremophiles including halophiles. Recently Setati (2010) has revisited applications of enzymes from halophilic and halotolerant microorganisms which produce a wide array of enzymes useful in food industry, laundry detergents and textile industries. Some of the enzymes of halophiles are summarized in Table 1.6.

How Can Families Reduce The Risk Of Exposure To Chlorophenols

Chlorophenols may also be present in many household products. 2,4-DCP is commonly used for mothproofing. 4-CP is used as a disinfectant in homes, farms, hospitals, and as an antiseptic for root canal treatment. Monochlorophenols have been used as antiseptics, although they have largely been replaced by other chemicals. Pesticides and household chemicals should be stored out of reach of young children to prevent unintentional poisonings. Always store pesticides and household chemicals in their original labeled containers. Never store pesticides or household chemicals in containers children would find attractive to eat or drink from, such as old soda bottles.

The Nature Of Petroleum

Crude petroleum is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons that is separated into fractions of differing boiling ranges by the refining process shown schematically in Figure 6-1. The various fractions either are used directly as energy sources (straight-run gasoline) or are modified chemically to yield more efficient energy sources such as high-octane gasoline. In addition, hydrocarbons may be converted to petrochemical compounds such as monomers, polymers, and detergents that are derived from petroleum.

Cleaning Up Oil Spills

Identified detergents that are less toxic to marine life than crude oil but equally effective in dispersing the spill. Some studies were performed in an attempt to determine which of the components of the bioremediation mixture (Inipol EAP 22) were most effective in promoting bacterial degradation of oiled beaches in Prince William Sound. Nitrogen, which appears to be the limiting nutrient for hydrocarbon-metabolizing bacteria in the presence of an oil spill, is believed to be essential for bioremediation to be successful. The presence of oleic acid and lauryl phosphate stimulates the growth of other bacteria, including some nitrogen-fixing ones, which enhance the growth of the hydrocarbon-metabolizing bacteria. Oleic acid and lauryl phosphate are added only initially, since their continued addition mainly supports the growth of bacteria that do not consume oil. Large colonies of bacteria that do not metabolize oil will consume the other essential nutrients (e.g., nitrogen) necessary...

Human Milk as Bioindicator SetUp of a Pilot Study

Before the pilot study presented here, no data were available in the Czech Republic for the assessment of human exposure by musks. In order to receive at least partial information, 59 milk samples were collected from nursing mothers (living but not necessarily born in Prague) by the Gynaecological Clinic which belongs to Medical Faculty,the Charles University,Prague. The manual sampling (milk expressed from the breast into a clean container) was conducted in accordance with WHO guidelines. Using a detailed questionnaire, relevant information on biological parameters such as age, dietary habits (specifically consumption of freshwater marine fish), use of perfumed cosmetics, frequency of contacts with detergents, etc. were collated. Regarding the analytical procedure, isolation of analytes from milk samples was carried out according to AOAC procedure described in European norm 528 26 . Isolated lipids (their content in milk ranged from 1.5 to 4.2 wt ) containing target analytes were...

Improvement in Metal Biosorption

Biosorption of heavy metals by live yeast biomass is found to be higher than that by dead biomass (Avery and Tobin 1992 Volesky et al. 1993). However, some reports have highlighted that dead biomass offers several advantages for industrial applications. These include ease of storage, insensitiveness to metal toxicity and lack of nutritional requirement (Gadd 1990 Volesky 1990). Yeast cells that have been modified (killed) by chemical and physical conditions display different properties for heavy metal uptake as compared to the original yeasts (Lu and Wilkins 1996) . In order to enhance the biosorption efficiency of yeast biomass, following pre-treatment methods have been used (i) Physical methods These include vacuum and freeze drying, boiling, autoclaving and mechanical disruption. (ii) Chemical methods They include the treatment of biomass with acid, alkali, detergents, caustic, methanol or formaldehyde. These methods have improved metal biosorption to some extent. Cell walls of...

Industrial Use of Microbial SCOs

SCOs are interesting intermediates for several industrial applications. Due to their chemical functionality available in their structure, they are excellent bioresources for the production of detergents, biopolymers, and other oleochemi-cals -32 . Because of their high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, SCOs are suited for high- value products in the cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical industry 33 . Gamma linolenic acid (GLA, 18 3(n-6)), for example, is an o> 6 fatty acid with anticancerous and anti-i nflammatory properties and can, therefore, be used as dietary supplement for treating problems with inflammation and autoimmune diseases.

Sustainability Environment and Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials currently or will soon include nano-engineered titania particles for sunscreens and paints, carbon nanotube composites in tires, silica nanoparticles as solid lubricants, and protein-based nanomaterials in soaps, shampoos, and detergents. Industrial applications currently being marketed include the use of alumina nanoparticles in the manufacture of propellants, pyrotechnics, and ceramics membranes, nanoparticles in semiconductor manufacture, and numerous biomedical applications. If the current trend in commercial ventures continues, we will soon find ourselves with a relatively large nanomaterials industry. Our vantage point early in the trajectory of this industry confers upon us a particularly promising opportunity to get this technology right and ensure that nanotechnologies emerge as a tool for sustainability.

General Considerations

With the advent of synthetic detergents, many of the disadvantages of hard waters for household use have been diminished. However, soap is preferred for some types of laundering and for personal hygiene, and hard waters remain as objectionable as ever for these purposes. The scaling problem continues to be a consideration in spite of advances in our knowledge of water chemistry and the development of many proprietary devices that are claimed to prevent scaling through the application of principles not fully explainable.

Some Applications of Complexing

Besides its complexing role, the polyphosphate ion protonates to produce a basic solution that improves the cleaning action of soaps and detergents by As discussed in Chapter 7, with low cost and no apparent toxicity, phosphates received extensive use in detergent formulations until the 1970s, with typically 35-50 of the detergent formulations being sodium tripolypho-sphate. Since phosphate is an essential nutrient and an effective fertilizer, extensive increases in the growth of algae in freshwater systems and consequent increase in biological oxygen demand (Section 7.2.5) and eutrophication were ascribed to detergents entering the waters through waste discharge. As a result, phosphates were banned in home detergents in many areas, including much of the United States and Canada, although it now appears that this was an overreaction. From the general coordination properties discussed for Ca(II), we can predict that a satisfactory complexing agent for replacement of phosphate in...

BTEX Benzene Toluene Ethyl Benzene Xylene

Solubility and toxicity (Coates et al 2002) . Benzene and toluene are released into the environment through gasoline, petroleum fuels, and industrial effluents of metal, paint, textile manufacture, wood processing, chemical production, and tobacco products. On the other hand, ethylbenzene and xylene contamination has been associated with the manufacture of pesticides, chemicals, detergents, varnishes and paints (Coates et al. 2002 Chakraborty and Coates 2004).

Spectrum of Suitable Sediment Contaminants for Historical Time Trends

The outflow of domestic and industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) includes a wide spectrum of compounds determined by their numerous input sources, inclusive detergents and anionic surfactants such as - detergents (e.g. linear alkylbenzenesulphonates, LAS) and disinfectants,

General Emission Trends and Classification of Contaminants

On the contrary, more modern contamination is reflected for instance by pharmaceuticals, detergents, biocides and flame retardants, which have been introduced in the technosphere in the late 1960s. Only a few monitoring studies are dealing with these present day contaminants within aquatic sediment archives (see Table 7.1). Miller et al. (2008) and Cantwell et al. (2010) published input trends of the modern bactericides triclosan and triclocarban determined in different marine-estuarine sedimentary archive of the South-East coast of the USA. Furthermore, the polymer additives mono- and dibutyl tin have been analysed in the riparian wetlands of the Lippe River (Germany, Heim et al. 2004 see Fig. 7.5). In addition, organotin compounds and synthetic musk fragrances have been detected in coastal sediments of the Southern-California bay, USA (Venkatesan et al. 1998 Peck et al. 2006).

Boron B CAS 7440428 Background

Sodium tetraborate (kernite) is also known as borax and nds use as an additi ve in detergents and other cleaning agents. A major use for boron is the manufacture of borosilicate glass which, because of its low coef cient of thermal e xpansion, is used in ovenware, laboratory glassware, piping, and sealed-beam headlights. Boric acid (H3BO3) is used as a weak antiseptic and eye-wash and as a natural insecticide. Other uses for boron compounds include re retardants, leather tanning, pulp and paper whitening agents, and high-energy rocket fuels. Elemental boron is used for neutron absorption in nuclear reactors and in alloys with copper, aluminum, and steel. For these

Biotesting of soil on integral toxicity

At the same time with the chemical analysis on soil toxicity before, during, and after bioremediation, relative (indirect) method for assessment of integral toxicity by biotesting in daphnia was used. This technique allowed to determine total toxicity of all substances in soil, including toxicity of initial PCB and products of their microbial decomposition. The method allowed to show that no highly-toxic products of PCB decomposition form during bioremediation.

HPPO and In Situ HPPO Processes HP Generation by Direct Oxidation of H2 DSHP

The DSHP is carried out in an alcoholic solvent, and produces dilute solutions of HP. The dilute methanol solution obtained might be suitable for selected organic syntheses. Clearly, the direct synthesis might be aimed at covering a small part of the HP market, also because the major use of HP (over 50 for bleaching paper, wood, and textiles, the remainder being distributed among applications in the fields of detergents, disinfectants and cosmetics) requires aqueous solutions with concentrations of between 30 and 70 4 . Chemical applications for HP currently constitute less than 10 of all the applications ofthis product however, a new, cost-effective HP-inorganic solution could be available for chemical oxidation in industrial applications, for example, in phenol and epichlorhydrin manufacture.

STC Bison 308 and 508

STC Bison 308 and 508 are solutions for treating oil and grease contaminants. According to the vendor, they can neutralize petroleum-based oil and grease by converting petroleum hydrocarbons into nontoxic soaps through a saponification process. Further, the vendor states that STC Bison 308 and 508 solutions can be used to remediate hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Remedial Concepts claims that the oils and greases are converted into cleaners and detergents that are safe enough for disposal into any sewage system The vendor claims that the solution Saponifies oils, turning them into water-soluble, nontoxic detergents.

The Active Ingredients of Herbicides and Pesticides

Persistence of organophosphorus insecticides as well as other banned organochlorine insecticides was detected in the aquatic environment. These pesticide herbicide classes have been extensively used for the production of corn, cotton and rice. Most frequently detected compounds from herbicides were atrazine, simazine, alachlor, metolachlor and trifluralin, from insecticides were diazinon, parathion methyl and from pesticides were lindane, endosulfan and aldrin. Pesticidal residues were detected more in rivers as compared to the pollution in lakes. The detected residues of most pesticides followed seasonal variation, as maximum values were detected during the late spring and summer durations followed by decrease in winter. However, increased level of concentrations was observed in areas of maximum pesticide use and heavy agricultural practices (Konstantinou et al. 2006). Several compounds are non-toxic but may be converted to toxic products by the process called 'activation' mediated...

Management And Removal Of The Drugs

The full lifecycle of pharmaceuticals leads to a different understanding of the functionality necessary for a pharmaceutical. In the present discussion improvement of synthesis and renewable feedstock are very prominent within green and sustainable chemistry (Anastas and Warner 1998) and its application to pharmacy, whereas the environmental properties of the molecules themselves are somewhat underestimated. Applying the knowledge of green chemistry to pharmaceuticals means that easy degradability after use or application is taken into account even before a pharmaceutical's synthesis is deemed benign by design (Kummerer 2007). Such an approach is not completely new for example, it is quite common during the development of pharmaceuticals with respect to unwanted side effects. This can also result in economical advantages in the long run and will fit into green pharmacy. Examples of pesticides and detergents, complexing agents, and some pharmaceuticals demonstrate the feasibility of...

Uses and Points of Contact

Much public attention has been given to the possible dangers of polycarbonate water bottles. Polycarbonate contains the EDC bisphenol-A, which interferes with estrogen uptake by binding to estrogen receptors (Whittelsey, 2003). There have been many warnings against washing polycarbonate bottles with harsh detergents and against the use of polycarbonate bottles that have been harshly used or are old, because they are more likely to release bisphenol-A into their contents. Many water bottles are made of polycarbonate and are thought to release bisphenol-A under these conditions (Non-Toxic Times, 2004). Unfortunately, the specific effects of small bisphenol-A to the human body are not well enough understood to know whether the levels leached from water bottles could be harmful.

Biodegradation Profile Of Specific Aocs GROUPS

Because a detailed and exhaustive discussion of the state of the art in biodegradation of AOCs was outside the scope and space of our chapter, we have selected several groups of AOCs, focusing on the most important and most distinctive biodegradability characteristics in each group. The selection has been made on arbitrary grounds, including their recognized environmental interest and persistence polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs and poly(chlorinated biphe-nyl)s (PCBs) and their diverse commercial uses (agrochem-icals, detergents, explosives, and flame retardants). We hope that the selection provides useful examples of environmentally relevant transformations. The most recent and or most comprehensive literature reviews, original articles, and our own work have been used as sources of information. The reader is directed to the cited reviews (and the references therein) for a more detailed information on biodegradability of each group of chemicals. For certain groups, information...

Sources And Types Of Air Pollution

Agricultural spraying of pesticides, orchard-heating devices, exhaust from various commercial processes, rubber from tires, mists from spray-type cooling towers, and the use of cleaning solvents and household chemicals add to the pollution load. Toxic pollutant emissions and their fate in the environment need further study.

Environmental Concentrations

Musk ketone and musk xylene, as well as the polycyclic musks, are mostly used in detergents, other cleaning products and cosmetics that finally end up in domestic wastewater. Surface water concentrations are found to vary largely, with higher concentrations clearly related to samples in close proximity to STP discharge points. As for the polycyclic musks, the data for freshwater samples taken in Germany, The Netherlands and Switzerland were combined into a frequency distribution. The median of more than 170 samples was < 0.005 mg L-1 and the 90th-percentile was 0.04 mg L-1 1, 35-37 . The concentrations of musk xylene were considerably lower. The median of the concentrations measured in the highly loaded German River Ruhr was 0.01 g L-1 1 . Likewise, the median and 90th-percentile of the concentrations measured in freshwater fish from Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland and Italy were around 10 and 100 mg kg-1 ww for musk ketone 1,38-42 , whereas the concentrations of musk xylene...

Nonylphenol Ethoxylates

Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) are extensively used as surfactants in industrial products (see Chap. 1). NPEOs are a mixture of polyethoxylated mono-alkylphenols, predominantly para-substituted, and are used in the manufacturing of paints, detergents, inks, and pesticides 435, 446 . Surfactants are common water pollutants because of their use in aqueous solutions, which are discharged into the environment in the form of wastewater from treatment plants or sludge stored in landfills. Degradation products of alkyl-phenol polyethoxylates, i.e., nonylphenol (NP), have the potential to be bioac-cumulated, thereby becoming toxic to aquatic 447 and soil microorganisms 435,448 .

Final Remarks And Perspectives Of A Continuously Changing Market

A further example of changes to the detergent market are observed in the Philippines. Increasing public awareness regarding deterioration of the environment and wasting of water resources solely in exchange for cheaper raw materials used for surfactant production has put pressure on manufacturers, which have started to suspend the use of branched alkylbenzene sulfonates (ABSs) 24 . Recently an act has been approved which will prohibit manufacture, distribution, and sale of domestic and industrial detergents composed of hard, petrochemically based surfactants 25 . As a result, new products containing a single coconut-based surface-active ingredient, AS, have been introduced into the market 26 .

Introduction Current Industrial Propene Oxide Production

Polyurethane products and formulated systems are used in rigid foams, flexible foams, adhesives, sealants, coatings and elastomers, as well as in many other applications. Propene glycols are used in a wide variety of end-use and industrial applications, from unsaturated polyester resins, cosmetics and household detergents, to paints and automotive brake fluids. Propene glycol ethers are commonly

Solid Phase Extraction SPE

The major limitation of the SPE method is the extraction of water samples containing solids or heavily contaminated samples. If the amount of particulates is low, the SPE method can still be used if the particles do not block the cartridges. If the eluate is allowed to soak the particulates for a few minutes (after the eluting solvent is added), quantitative extraction is obtained. If a high amount of particles is present, it is advised that the sample is filtered first and the phthalates measured separately on the aqueous and the solid phases. If the sample is highly contaminated with other organic material (solvents, oil) or contains high amounts of detergents, recovery may be low do to incomplete enrichment on the C18 material. For these samples liquid-liquid extraction is advised.

The Determination Of Hardness In A Water Sample

In the past, water hardness was defined as a measure of the capacity of water to precipitate soap. However, current laboratory practices define total hardness as the sum of divalent ion concentrations, especially those of calcium and magnesium, expressed in terms of mg CaCO3 L. There are no known adverse health effects of hard or soft water, but the presence of hard waters results in two economic considerations (1) Hard waters require considerably larger amounts of soap to foam and clean materials, and (2) hard waters readily precipitate carbonates (known as scale) in piping systems at high temperatures. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are two of the few common salts whose solubility decreases with increasing temperature. This is due to the removal of dissolved CO2 as temperature increases due to the changing Henry's law constant. The advent of synthetic detergents has significantly reduced the problems associated with hard water and the lack of foaming.

Phytoremediation of Toxins

In bioremediation of herbicides and pesticides, plant metabolism contributes to their removal by transformation, break down, stabilization or volatilization after uptake from soil and groundwater. Biodegradation of these chemicals is mainly carried out by both bacteria and plants. However, bacterial degradation of these chemicals is more efficient as compared to plants (Roberts et al. 1993 Allison et al. 1995 Hall et al. 2000 Hendersona et al. 2006 Liao and Xie 2008). Bioremediation by microbes is mostly active in the upper layer of the soil surface, where the organic matter is the source of nutrients for their activity (Navarro et al. 2004). The degradation process consists of formation of metabolites and their decomposition to inorganic and simple products that are generally harmless to living organisms (Sassman et al. 2004, Sparks 2003, Kale et al. 2001). Some fungal species such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Phanerochaete sordida have also been shown to actively degrade...

Enantioselective Analyses of Polycyclic Musks

The synthetic polycyclic musks HHCB e.g. galaxolide) and AHTN e.g.tonalide), which are important artificial fragrances used in a large number of perfumes, laundry detergents, fabric softeners, toiletry products, and other household products 25 , as well as the polycyclic musks ATII e.g. traseolide), and AHDI e.g. phantolide) were included in a recent study by Gatermann et al. 20 . The stereochemical structures of these four polycyclic musk compounds can be found in Fig. 1. All derivatives are chiral compounds, where HHCB and ATII exhibit two stereogenic centres and thus two diastereomeric pairs of enantiomers. However, it is important to note that the technical ATII contains more than 95 of the trans isomer,presumably reflecting larger differences in the physicochemical properties of the diastereomers,which in turn results in a high excess of this trans-diastereomer during the synthesis. As a consequence, in environmental samples largely the latter diastereomer will be encountered,...

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Many PAHs undergo oxidation and or nitration in the atmosphere, generating toxic products (Vione et al. 2006). The PAHs differ from other classic POPs in their shorter atmospheric half-lives (due to faster reactions with OH radical), their strong affinity for sorption to soot carbon, and the influence of ongoing primary sources on their distribution (Nizzetto et al. 2008). They are therefore a complementary group of compounds for investigating the role of atmospheric persistence on environmental partitioning mechanisms of POPs (Nizzetto et al. 2008).

Polycyclic Musk Compounds

Compounds, another group of nitro-free musks. Compared to the nitro musk compounds, they are superior in terms of resistance to light and alkali and in their abilities to bind to fabrics 3,5,6,15 . Accordingly, they are mainly used in cosmetics and detergents. The most important representatives of this class of musks are (AHTN) and (HHCB) followed by (ADBI) and (ATII) 5,51 . HHCB was used in higher amounts than AHTN in the early 1970s, due to more advanced production procedures and lower price. Since the 1980s these parameters have been comparable for both compounds 15 . 1500 tonnes AHTN and 3800 tonnes HHCB are used per year in the USA and in Europe 51 . These production volumes amount to about 95 of the commercially used polycyclic musk compounds 52 . In contrast, (ATTN) (Table 3) is only of historical importance. Owing to its neurotoxic properties, production and use have been terminated as from the beginning of the 1980s 5 . An investigation of cosmetics and detergents in 1994 95...

Soaps Synthetic Surfactants And Polymers

Soaps, surfactants and polymers are discussed together, following the discussion of petroleum, because most of the polymers and the surfactants in detergents are made mainly from chemicals derived from petroleum. Natural fats and oils are also used in the manufacture of surfactants (Figure 7-1). Soaps and surfactants contain segments of linear or lightly branched hydrocarbon chains that are, in the main, broken down to acetate up on metabolism by microorganisms in the environment. The biodegradation of petroleum occurs by the same pathway once a terminal carbon has been oxidized to a carboxyl grouping. The rate of degradation by other environmental reagents such as sunlight, oxygen, or water is much slower than that of microbial degradation. Heavy-duty laundry powders Light-duty liquid dish detergents Heavy-duty laundry liquids Specialty cleansers Light-duty liquid dish detergents Light-duty liquid dish detergents Light-duty liquid dish detergents Light-duty liquid dish detergents...

Boron and Plants

Abstract Boron is found naturally in the earth's crust in the oxidized form as borax and colemanite, particularly in the oceans, sedimentary rocks, coal, shale, and some soils. It is never found in the elemental form in nature possessing a complex chemistry similar to that of silicon, with properties switching between metals and non-metals. Boron has become an important and strategic element in terms of developing technologies. It is released into the environment mainly through the weathering of rocks, volatilization from oceans, geothermal steam, burning of agricultural refuse and fuel wood, power generators (coal oil combustion), glass industry, household use of boron-containing products (including soaps and detergents), borax mining and processing, leaching from treated wood and paper, chemical plants, and sewage sludge disposal, but a major proportion originates from the weathering of rocks. Boron is regarded as an essential element for human beings, animals and plants. Boron...

Solid Waste Disposal And Recycling

Recycling Oil Plant Syosset

Some waste materials can be disposed of by burning. Unfortunately, combustion of many substances can generate toxic products that are released to the Although not nominally considered to contain hazardous materials, toxic substances from household chemicals, batteries, paint solvents, and so on inevitably make up some fraction of household wastes. However, EPA regulations prohibit disposal of hazardous wastes in an ordinary municipal landfill. Hazardous wastes, which include flammable, volatile, toxic, and pathological wastes, include wastes from many industrial operations. Radioactive wastes are a special class of hazardous material, discussed in Chapter 14. Hazardous wastes are often disposed of in landfill facilities specifically intended for the purpose, and with extensive documentation. In the past, there was considerable mixing of hazardous and municipal waste and few records of landfill composition or even location were kept landfill construction was much more casual....

Hybrid Unit Operations

The next generation of commercial processes using catalytic distillation technology will be in the manufacture of oxygenates and fuel additives or in the synthesis of a range of fatty acid esters used in the manufacture of cosmetics, detergents and surfactants 49 . In general, many reactions in the field of use ofbioresources can gain significant advantage from using reactive distillation for PI.

The Difference Between Sustainable and Unsustainable Products

If this is the case, then the sustainability criterion (established in Chapter 3) will require that the sustainable product emit products that continue to be beneficial to the environment. If the sustainable product is exposed to unsustainable medium (e.g., microwave heating), then the product reacts with the medium to minimize the damage of the unsustainable medium. On the other, an unsustainable product continues to emit harmful products even if it is exposed to a sustainable environment (e.g., sunlight and natural atmosphere), and it emits much more toxic products if exposed to unsustainable medium (e.g., microwave). This chapter establishes a protocol that can answer why no amount of unsustainable product or process can be allowed as standard practice in sustainable engineering.

Waxes 1411 Introduction

Waxes are used as additives into lubricants, adhesives, coatings, sealants, impregnation materials and adjuvants, etc. A wide range of commercial products rely on waxes, including automobiles, textiles, papers and specialty inks, pesticides, candles, plastics and wood-plastic composites, furniture and shoe polish, household cleaners, cosmetics, dental treatment products, drugs and food (chewing gum, cheese packaging, confectionery coating) 2 . Waxes are currently generated by (1) chemical syntheses, (2) obtained from geological deposits originating from fossils, or (3) obtained from living organisms (recent waxes). The vast majority of waxes are based either on alkane or on ester structures. Synthetic waxes are mainly generated by the Fischer-Tropsch process (CO + H2) and olefin (ethylene, propylene) polymerization, producing mixtures of normal and branched alkanes 3 . Fossil waxes are extracted from crude oil and coal deposits, and consist of alkanes and alkyl ester mixtures...

Liquid Liquid Extraction LLE

The extraction of relatively large volumes of water samples (1-2 L) with an apolar non-miscible solvent is the most straightforward method for the extraction of phthalates from aqueous samples. Good extraction recoveries are obtained by using dichloromethane, cyclohexane or hexane 22 . The ratio of the volume of the water sample to the volume of the organic solvent should be smaller than 20. Higher ratios will still result in high recovery for the high-molecular weight phthalates (logKow 7.73 for DEHP 23 ), while low-molecular weight phthalates are more water-soluble and consequently the recovery drops (log Kow 1.61 for DMP). After extraction, the organic phase is dried (over anhydrous sodium sulfate) and concentrated. If complex-contaminated samples are extracted,several compounds such as hydrocarbons, detergents and plant material (sterols) are co-extracted. The extract can then be purified on an activated aluminium oxide column. A glass column or cartridge is packed with 1 g alu

Phosphorus Fertilizers And Eutrophication

The linear tripolyphosphate used in detergents was discussed in Section 9.5.6. Other condensed phosphates that have been used include pyrophosphate, tetraphosphate, and hexametaphosphate. In dilute solutions, polyphosphates are hydrolyzed to the orthophosphate, although the reactions are not always fast. Inorganic phosphate concentration is limited by solubility, since many metal phosphates are insoluble. For example, Ksp for FePO4 is 10 23. Aluminum phosphate, AlPO4, and hydroxyapatite, Ca5OH(PO4)3, are also very insoluble. Ligands that form strong complexes with the metal, or protonation of the phosphate ions, can increase the effective solubility, however. Typically, maximum availability of phosphate in soils is around pH 7. this process, but there are no atmospheric steps except as particulates. The low phosphate levels in water systems are increased easily by anthropogenic processes such as the use of fertilizers and phosphate-containing detergents. Runoff from cattle feedlots is...

Recalcitrancepersistence Of Organic Compounds

Martin Alexander, who denoted the principle of micro-bial infallibility as possibly one of the grand illusions of microbiology (Alexander 1965, p. 37), was one of the pioneers in the field of biodegradation. Early on, he recognized the recalcitrant nature of many natural substances, such as humus, paleobiochemicals, and hydrocarbons in certain deposits, as well as of many synthetic compounds, such as washing detergents, certain pesticides, and synthetic polymeric materials (Alexander 1965, 1973, 1981). The general conclusions of his conceptual analysis of the reasons for recalcitrance still hold today (Fewson 1988 Boethling et al. 2007), and the following statement (Alexander 1981, p. 397) is now widely accepted.

Surface active agents

4.1 Anionic detergents 4.1.1 Natural waters Titration methods Wang et al. 4, 5 discuss indirect two-phase titration methods for the determination of anionic detergents. Wang et al. 6, 7 also describe a direct titration procedure for anionics involving titration with 1,5-dimethyl-1,5-diazoundecamethylene polymethobromide. Earlier spectrophotometric methods for the determination of anionic detergents were based on the use of the methylene blue, Rhodamine B, ferroin 10, 11 , azure A 12 and methylene green 11 . Stroehl and Kurzak10 studied the absorption spectra and stability of complexes formed between anionic detergents and methylene blue and methyl green. The absorption maxima for the methylene blue and methyl green complexes of seven anionic surfactants were found to lie between 657 and 671nm and between 613 and 628nm, respectively. These workers suggested that in routine determinations the measurements should be made at 660 and 620nm, rather than at 650 and 615nm...

Common Chemicals Involved in Soil Contamination

Soil pollution is caused by chemicals of both organic and inorganic contaminants. The most prominent chemical groups of organic contaminants are fuel hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated aromatic compounds, detergents and pesticides. Inorganic species include nitrates, phosphates and heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium and lead inorganic acids and radionuclides (radioactive substances). Among the sources of these contaminants are agricultural runoffs, acidic precipitates, industrial waste materials and radioactive fallout. Some of the prominent chemicals involved in soil contamination are discussed below

Synthetic Musks in Waste Water

A large part of the synthetic musk compounds is used as an additive to products intended for application in water. These are mainly cleaning agents and detergents and a number of articles for personal hygiene, which after their use are released at least partly into the waste water. Another part of these substances is retained in the washing or on the body, especially because synthetic musks are much less volatile than other fragrances of perfumery oils. Due to their higher adherence they tend to remain longer on textile fibers and on the skin, where they produce a prolonged scent.

Alkylphenol Polyethoxylates

Alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEO) are a major class of nonionic surfactants over 230 million kg were sold in the United States in 1990 434,435 . They are most important in industrial applications but are also used in institutional and household cleaners and personal care products 436 . In recent years,APEs have received widespread attention in the United States and abroad because of their incomplete elimination during sewage treatment and the detection of their biodegradation intermediates in secondary effluents 17,18, 21,106,115 and rivers receiving such effluents 17,18,115,434,437 . Reported concentrations in rivers range from less than 1 mg l to greater than 100 mg l for the various metabolites 436, Aboul-Kassim and Simoneit, unpublished report). The most common residues detected are those with shortened ethoxy chains so that just one or two ethoxy groups remain (AP1EO and AP2EO), the alkylphenol ethoxycar-boxylates (APEC, or more specifically, APnEC, where n is the number of...

The Evolution Of Bioremediation

Microorganisms, especially bacteria, have benefited from time, evolving into many types with exceedingly diverse metabolic capabilities which can be utilized in bioremediation. Bacteria have existed on the planet for perhaps 3 billion years or so. Given their small size, large surface-to-volume ratio, very high rate of growth and division, and genome plasticity, bacteria evolve quickly. Yet it is only within approximately the last century that a vast array of synthetic chemicals which appear to have no natural counterparts have become common environmental pollutants, e.g., pesticides, herbicides, biocides, detergents, and halogenated solvents. That the biosphere has not been catastrophically polluted by these chemicals is testimony to the ability of the bacteria to evolve. These ideas were formalized by Alexander (4) as the principle of microbial infallibility, that is, the principle that no natural organic compound is totally resistant to biod gradation provided that environmental...

Synthetic Musk Compounds

Musk compounds traditionally belong to the most important substances used in the fragrance industry 28 . On one hand this is due to their odor properties which can be divided into types such as animal-like, flowery, and fruity. On the other hand,they are appreciated because of their abilities to improve the fixation of compounds and to round off fragrance compositions 3,29 . Increased fixation improves the effectiveness of fragrances by slowing down the release of volatiles, thus contributing to a defined and stable quality over an extended period 2 . They are also known to bind fragrances to fabrics. Therefore, they are added as perfumery ingredients not only to cosmetics but also to detergents 30 .

The Disposal of Sewage Sludge

Some of the increased amounts of heavy metals. Control experiments indicate that vegetables vary greatly in the extent to which they will absorb increased amounts of the metals e.g., the uptake of lead by lettuce is particularly large, but that by cucumbers is negligible. The concentration of arsenic in agricultural soils is greatly increased if arsenic pesticides are applied to them crops planted on these soils subsequently absorb some of the adsorbed arsenic. Other substances of concern in using sewage sludge as fertilizer for food are alkylphenols from detergents, brominated fire retardants, and pharmaceuticals especially antibiotics given to farm animals.

Coalbed Methane Produced Water In The Western Us

Coalbed Methane

The patented Drake system5 is a variant of the ion exchange process that was developed specifically for treatment of sodium bicarbonate-rich CBM produced water of the Powder River Basin. The system uses a modified fluid-bed ion exchange treatment that produces low-sodium treated water and minimal sodium sulfate brine (1 to 3 percent of influent water). The brine can be reduced by drying and has a commercial value as sodium sulfate (Glauber's salt), a chemical salt used in the manufacture of detergents and paper. Drying reduces the brine stream volume by over 86 percent, from a liquid to a dried salt that is easily managed. Thus, no waste stream or product needs disposal. System treatment capacity is approximately 8,500 barrels per day. Although primarily designed for treating produced water with relatively low TDS, sodium removal (and SAR reduction) is reported to be highly effective. Although the footprint for the facility is greater (approximately 2 acres) than that for a Higgins...


Surfactants (Fig. 23) represent one of the major and most versatile groups of organic compounds produced around the world 314 . Their main uses are industrial, 54 (cleaning products, food, and industrial processing), household, 29 (laundry, dishwashing, etc.) and personal care, 17 (soaps, shampoos, cosmetics). The worldwide production in 1988 315 was 2.8 million tons. Surfactants, natural 316,317 or synthetic, change the solubility and physico-chemical state of other environmental micro-constituents 318, 319 and influence their accumulation and spreading at phase boundaries 320 .

Starch Production

One of the earliest known industrial uses of starch was to size and stiffen textiles. It is also added to yarns to increase mechanical strength and resistance to friction wear and helps resist moisture penetration. And it can serve as a stabilizer and filler for colored inks when fabrics are overprinted. The detergent industry uses starch products for the production of biodegradable, nontoxic and skin-friendly detergents. Starch products are also used in an array of less obvious applications as feedstock in fermentation for the production of amino acids,

Petrochemicals Today

During the past century, petrochemicals have become a vital part of industrial and economic activity around the world. Synthetic polymers are an important part of numerous industrial products, consumer goods, and healthcare applications. Materials such as polystyrene, polyester, and polyvinyl chloride are used in an enormous range of products across a wide variety of market sectors 5 . Textile production, food packaging, construction materials, and communication and entertainment technologies are all reliant on a plentiful supply of plastics. Petrochemicals have also been used extensively as food preservatives, vitamin supplements, refrigerants, antifreeze solutions, cosmetics, detergents, pharmaceuticals, and disinfectants. Chemicals derived from oil have enormous industrial, economic, and social importance.

Traditional Uses

Petroleum is the dominant feedstock for the modern chemical industry. However, renewable raw materials are still preferred in those sectors where substances derived from biomass provide higher quality or more cost- effective products. Examples include the use of wood pulp for paper production, cotton production for textiles, the use of linseed oil for surface coatings and linoleum, and the use of coconut and palm oils for detergents and soaps 6 . In each of these cases, there is no economically viable synthetic alternative of equivalent function. However, in contrast to petrochemical products, these remain relatively niche, specialist materials. Cotton fibers perform well as part of a fabric, but are of little use in other materials. If agriculture is to supply a larger part of the chemical industry, it must be capable of providing generic chemical building blocks that can be used in a wider variety of applications.

Oxidation Reactions

The use of a green oxidant'' such as O2 is highly desirable from the point of view of improving the atom efficiency of the reaction, in particular with reference to the increasing need to use environmentally benign oxidants in place of conventional stoichiometric oxidizing chemical reagents, which are usually hazardous and or toxic products that generate a large amount of noxious byproducts. Photochemistry is an elective method for achieving selective oxidations using molecular oxygen as an oxidant under mild conditions. As an example, the 9-phenyl-10-methylacridinium cation (AcrPh1) acted as an effective photocatalyst for solvent-free selective photocatalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde under visible light irradiation (at ambient temperature) via efficient photoinduced photoelectron transfer from benzyl alcohol to the singlet excited state of the acridinium ion.76 The radical cation of the alcohol then lost a proton and added to molecular oxygen, forming benzaldehyde...


Moniliformin CAS number 71376-34-6 was discovered by Cole et al. 32 in 1973, while screening for toxic products of a North American isolate of F. moniliforme Sheldon (F. verticillioides Sacc. Nirenberg) cultured on corn. More recent studies demonstrated that previous ones that ascribed moniliformin production to F. moniliforme, actually tested an aggregate consisting of more than one species. Moniliformin is formed in cereals by a number of Fusarium species that include F. avenaceum, F. subglutinans and F. proliferatum and it occurs as the sodium or potassium salt of 1-hydroxycyclobut-1-ene-3,4-dione. It is an ionic compound forming sodium and potassium salts and is soluble in water and polar solvents. This mycotoxin has not yet received much attention because it does not appear to be carcinogenic and relatively high amounts appear to be necessary to cause significant toxicological effects.


The following techniques were used to obtain chemical contaminant levels in samples for lead, cadmium, and nickel graphite oven atomic adsorption spectrometry for mercury atomic fluorescence. Dichlorodipheny-ltrichlorethan for DDT, DDD, DDE, hexachlorocy-clohexan (aHCH, gHCH), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) gas-phase capillary chromatography combined with an electron-capture detector for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) high-performance chromatography combined with mass spectrometry non-ionic detergents such as nonylphenols 4-(para)-nonylphenol) and octylphenols (para-tert-octylphe-nol dioxins gas chromatography combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry brominated diphe-nyl ethers gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry - CI negative. All of the above compounds were analyzed in mussel flesh for every station, except dioxins, brominated diphenyl ethers, and non-ionic detergents, which were measured for about one in five stations.


One of the most undesirable aspects of microbial transformations in nature is the formation of toxicants. A large number of organic compounds which are themselves innocuous can be, and often are, converted to products that may be harmful to humans, animals, plants, and microorganisms. By such means, the environment may create a pollutant where none was present before. The process of forming toxic products from innocuous precursors is known as activation 171-177 .


Enzymes have been used on an industrial scale, in detergents for example, since the 1950s, but their role in biocatalysis has been fully accepted at industrial level only in the last few decades or so, with the lead coming from the pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industries. Although there is ongoing research into the catalytic properties of antibodies and also segments of DNA and RNA, none of these have found

Indoor Air Quality

Source Alkyl Phenols

Household appliances, aerosol applications, cleaning products, pesticides, photocopying machines (ozone), interior furnishings and building materials (formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds), tobacco smoke, dry-cleaned clothing, and radon may also contribute to the indoor air pollution problem. Noise might also be included. Table 2.10 lists major pollutant sources, specific contaminants, and acceptable levels. The contaminants may be found in the new or rehabilitated home, office, or other workplace in the automobile, airplane, or

Alkyl Phenols

Alkyl phenol ethoxylates are non-ionic surfactant components of industrial and domestic detergents, paints, cosmetics and pesticide formulations. Nonylphenol-polyethoxylates and octylphenol-polyethoxylates represent the greater part of all alkyl phenol ethoxylates. Biodegradation by sewage treatment process results in the formation of alkyl phenols such as nonylphenol (Fig. 8.10) and octylphenol (Gross et al. 2001). Nonylphenol and octylphenol are hydrophobic and lipophilic and thus can accumulate in sediment and fish adipose tissue. Both alkyl phenol ethoxylates and alkyl phenols are known to have estrogenic properties.

Nitro Musk Compounds

In order to locate potential sources of contamination, the content of nitro musk compounds in low-priced cosmetics and detergents marketed in Germany was surveyed in 1992. It was found that 55 of the investigated cosmetics (perfumes, shaving lotions, shower gels, shampoos, creams) and 41.5 of the detergents contained nitro musks. There were significant differences in the amounts detected, e.g., musk ketone concentrations in cosmetics ranged from 4.0 to 2200 mg kg-1. Musk ketone dominated in cosmetics musk xylene was the main representative in detergents (Fig. 4). Musk ambrette could only be found in one cosmetic product 37 . This is in agreement with results reported by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 38,39 . It reflects the voluntary compliance of the Fig. 4 Frequency distribution of nitro musks in cosmetics and detergents in 1992 37 Fig. 4 Frequency distribution of nitro musks in cosmetics and detergents in 1992 37 In 1993 the public discussion on nitro musks resulted in a...


Heavy Metal Abc Transporter

Xenobiotic pollutants that can be remediated metabolised include thrichloroethy-lene (TCE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, explosives, trinitrotoluene (TNT), petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and detergents (Macek et al. 2000 Newman and Reynolds 2004). Soils that have been contaminated by weathered hydrocarbons and heavy metals (Palmroth et al. 2006) have been effectively treated with rhizoremediation. Processes involved in the phytoremediation of xenobiotic pollutants are microbial transformation and or mineralization and plant uptake, translocation, transformation and compartmen-talization of the contaminants. Rhizosphere factors play an important role in phytoremediation efficiency during successful rhizoremediation projects. Indeed, N- and P-fertilizers, root exudation and chelating agents can enhance plant uptake and accumulation of contaminants by improving the availability of the pollutants to the plants.

Nabarun Dasgupta

Communicable diseases are illnesses due to a specific infectious agent or its toxic products. They arise through transmission of that agent or its products from an infected person, animal, or inanimate reservoir to a susceptible host, either directly or indirectly through an intermediate plant or animal host, vector, or the inanimate environment.1 Illness may be caused by pathogenic bacteria, bacterial toxins, viruses, protozoa, spirochetes, parasitic worms (helminths), poisonous plants and animals, chemical poisons, prions (infectious proteinlike particles) rickettsias, and fungi, including yeasts and molds. In this text, vectorborne and airborne communicable diseases are discussed under arthropodborne diseases and respiratory diseases noncommunicable diseases will also be discussed. This chapter concludes with a basic description of definitions and typical studies and measures used in epidemiology. The terms communicable disease and infectious disease are used interchangeably.

Textile Dyes

Institute (ADMI 3WL) tristimulus filter method is used. The removal of ADMI in case of mixture of dyes was 47 while in case of textile effluents was found to be 28 (Kagalkar et al, 2010). Many edible plants have been known to possess dye decolorizing abilities because of the rich enzymatic status of these plants. Though such plants are unsuitable for field applications, their enzymes can be extracted and used for degradation of various textile dyes. The species of Sorghum vulgare, Phaseolous mungo and Brassica juncea have shown the potential to decolorize the dye Reactive Red 2 and have also demonstrated to possess abilities to decolorize and detoxify textile effluents (Ghodake et al, 2009). Even though different plants are capable of degrading the same dye molecule, the products formed after degradation are likely to be different indicating that the pattern of transformation of the xenobiotic molecule is dependent upon the plant species (Page and Schwitzguebel, 2009). Plants that...


Every PEG from oligomers up to polymers with a molecular weight (MW) of a few million is completely water-soluble. Commercially available PPG can be divided into two groups, the diol and triol types, based on the straight or branched chain structure of the polymer. The water solubility of PPGs is lost when the MW is increased to more than approximately 700 (triol type) and 1,000 (diol type) due to the inclusion of a methyl group in each monomer unit. Therefore, copolymers of PEG and PPG are used as detergents, where PEG is a hydrophilic constituent and PPG a hydrophobic one. Another copolymer is also used as a water-soluble flame-resisting pressure liquid, where ethylene oxide and propylene oxide are randomly copolymerized. PBO is an oily polymer due to its pendant ethyl groups. In general, PTMG is a waxy substance, from which water-soluble oligomers have been removed as impurities. PEG was the first member of the polyether group to be manufactured in large quantities and to be used...


Detergents are a mixture of synthetic surfactants, builders, bleaches, enzymes, and other materials designed to enhance the specific cleaning power of this mixture. Millions of pounds of these materials are produced in the United States each year (Table 7-1). The main advantage of synthetic surfactants over soaps is that the former do not precipitate in hard water. Since, however the cleansing power of synthetic surfactants is also decreased markedly by Ca2+ and Mg2+, it is necessary to add builders that enhance the cleansing action of synthetics by inactivating the Ca2+ and Mg2+ in hard water. The builders are polycarboxylic acids, silicates, zeolites (inorganic aluminosilicates), or polyphosphates (e.g., Na5P3O10 Section 10.5), which bind Ca2+ and Mg2+ thus preventing them from binding to the surfactant. Polyphosphates, which were used extensively as builders in the 1970s, were replaced in large part by zeolites because it was believed that phosphate from polyphosphates initiated...


A priori, it was essential to determine the micelle-water equilibrium partition coefficients (Kmc) for Triton X100, Brij 30 and Brij 35 and each of the three test compounds in order to calculate the mass of target compound to be added to each reactor in the bioluminescence assays (Fig . 4) so that the true aqueous concentration would be the same in each reactor, regardless of the concentration of surfactant. Following the methods of Guha and Jaffe (1996ab), the respective coefficients (in L mg) were calculated for naphthalene and phenanthrene in the presence of the respective test detergents, and these values were found to be very close to those previously reported by Guha and Jaffe, 1996ab, 1998). For the experiments, 3.3 mg L and 1.2 mg L of naphthalene and phenanthrene, respectively, representing the true aqueous concentrations of the two substrates, were used in each reactor (Keane, 2003). In the case of toluene, as it is a liquid vs crystals of the two PAHs, a reliable value for...

Modern Contaminants

However, the varied and intensive usage of detergents, consumer goods and personal care products with a huge inventory of a large number of different chemical substances is steadily increasing. Introduced into the environment by domestic wastewater, a wide range of substances are only partially removed during wastewa-ter treatment (e.g. Miller et al. 2008 Cantwell et al. 2010). Furthermore synthetic musk fragrances belong to this group of chemicals. They are extensively used in detergents, perfumes, shampoos, and other personal care products and the typical input pathway is related to municipal discharge of wastewater. Peck et al. (2006) estimate a significant increase in the consumption


Glycerol has been known since 2800 BC mainly as a by-product of soap production -34 - Currently glycerol has numerous applications in markets such as personal care, food, polyols, alkyd resins, tobacco, detergents, cellophane, explosives, and pharmaceuticals 35 . Leffingwell and Lesser identified 1582 applications for glycerol in 1945 -36 - however in recent times, many glycerol production plants are closing and new plants utilizing glycerol as a raw material are opening -37 . Global glycerol production has increased from 60000 tons in 2001 to 800 000 tons in 2005 partly due to biodiesel production. The amount of glycerol being used in technical applications is around 160000 tons and this is expected to grow at a rate of 2.8 per year 38 .

Human exposure

That while the majority of the brands of eye-shadows contained less than 2 ppm of water-soluble Cr, one brand contained more than 300 ppm Cr. High levels of Cr in several brands of detergents and bleaches have been suggested to be responsible for the induction of chromium contact dermatitis among occupationally unexposed individuals.53

Healthy Chemistry For Optimal Health

Healthy Chemistry For Optimal Health

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