Contents

Overview of Waste Management Options: Their Efficacy and Acceptability

Kit Strange

1 Introduction 1

2 Key Issues 1

3 What Is Waste? 2

4 How Is Waste Managed? 7

5 Recycling 33

6 What Is Integrated Waste Management? 34

7 Trends in Waste Management 39

8 Public Attitudes 43

9 Conclusions 50

Health Risks of Materials Recycling Facilities 53

Toni Gladding

1 Introduction 53

2 Previous Research Concerning Waste Handsorting 58

3 A Further Study on MRFs 67

4 Conclusions 71

5 Acknowledgements 72

Microbial Emissions from Composting Sites 73

Jillian R. M. Swan, Brian Crook and E. Jane Gilbert

1 Introduction 73

2 Bioaerosol Components 78

3 Potential 111 Health Effects among Compost Workers 84

4 Compost Site Case Studies 86

Issues in Environmental Science and Technology, No. 18 Environmental and Health Impact of Solid Waste Management Activities © The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002

5 111 Health Case Studies 96

Health Effects and Landfill Sites 103

Andy Redfearn and Dave Roberts

1 Introduction 103

2 Overview of Epidemiological Studies 104

3 Adverse Birth Outcomes 116

4 Theoretical Basis of Purported Effects 129

5 Summary 139

Emissions from Solid Waste Management Activities 141

Paul T. Williams

1 Introduction 141

2 Waste Landfill 141

3 Incineration 153

4 Other Waste Treatment Processes 165

Health Impacts of Waste Incineration 171

Ari Rabl and Jo V. Spadaro

1 Introduction 171

2 Emissions 174

3 Dispersion and Peak Concentration 179

4 Health Impacts and Costs 182

5 Monetary Valuation 185

6 Calculation of Damage 186

7 Damage Costs per Kilogram of Pollutant 189

8 Damage Costs per Kilogram of Waste 189

9 Conclusions 192 10 Acknowledgements 193

Methodological Issues Related to Epidemiological Assessment of Health

Risks of Waste Management 195

Helen Dolk

1 Introduction 195

2 The Design of an Epidemiological Study 196

3 Disease/Health Measurement 197

4 Exposure Measurement 199

5 Confounding 204

6 Statistical Considerations 207

7 Criteria for Causation 209

8 Use of Epidemiological Studies in Risk Management 210

Subject Index 211

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