Acidity And Alkalinity

Diagram Alkalinity

The alkalinity of water is its acid-neutralizing capacity. The acidity of water is its base-neutralizing capacity. Both parameters are related to the buffering capacity of water the ability to resist changes in pH when an acid or base is added . Water with high alkalinity can neutralize a large quantity of acid without large changes in pH on the other hand, water with high acidity can neutralize a large quantity of base without large changes in pH. Acidity is determined by measuring how much...

Nitrogen Ammonia Nh3 Nitrite No2 And Nitrate No3

Solubility Curve

Nitrogen compounds of greatest interest to water quality are those that are biologically available as nutrients to plants or exhibit toxicity to humans or aquatic life. Atmospheric nitrogen (N2) is the primary source of all nitrogen species, but it is not directly available to plants because the N N triple bond is too strong to be broken by photosynthesis. Atmospheric nitrogen must be converted to other nitrogen compounds before it can become available as a plant nutrient. The conversion of...

Indicators Of Fecal Contamination Coliform And Streptococci Bacteria

Detecting and preventing fecal contamination is of prime importance for all drinking water systems and recreation water managers. Fecal wastes may contain enteric pathogens (disease-causing organisms from the intestines of warm-blooded animals) such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoans (which include Cryptosporidium and Giardia). Fecal contaminated water is a common cause of gastrointestinal illness, including diarrhea, dysentery, ulcers, fatigue, and cramps. It also may carry pathogens that...