National Recommended Water Quality Criteria

(Adapted from: EPA 822-Z-99-001, April 1999.)

Section 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act requires the EPA to develop, publish, and revise water quality criteria so that they accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge. These criteria are based solely on a scientific interpretation of data concerning the relation between pollutant concentrations and environmental and human health effects. Considerations of technological feasibility or economic impacts of attaining the recommended criteria are not included in the criteria development process. Section 304(a) criteria are intended to provide guidance to states and tribes for adopting water quality standards and discharge limitations that are protective of designated water uses within their jurisdictions. States and tribes have three options (40 CFR 131.11):

1. Adopt the EPA recommended criteria.

2. Adopt the EPA criteria modified to reflect site-specific conditions.

3. Adopt different criteria derived using scientifically defensible methods.

Options 2 and 3 must result in criteria that are sufficient to protect designated water uses.

The EPA-recommended water quality criteria are not regulations. They are the product of compiling and interpreting a vast quantity of scientific data that the EPA recommends for states and tribes to use as guidance in adopting water quality standards pursuant to Section 303(c) of the Clean Water Act and the implementing of federal regulations in 40 CFR 131. The EPA water quality criteria do not represent legally binding requirements on EPA, states, tribes, or the public.

The following tables list all priority toxic pollutants and some nonpriority toxic pollutants, with criteria for environmental and human health effects and for organoleptic effects. If some criteria are not listed for a pollutant, the EPA has no national recommendation for those criteria. Also listed are the chemical abstracts service (CAS) registry numbers, which provide a unique identification number for each chemical.

Criterion maximum concentration (CMC) — an estimation of the highest concentration of a pollutant in surface water to which an aquatic community can be exposed briefly without resulting in an unacceptable effect; equivalent to an acute water quality standard.

Criterion continuous concentration (CCC) — an estimation of the highest concentration of a pollutant in surface water to which an aquatic community can be exposed indefinitely without resulting in an unacceptable effect; equivalent to a chronic water quality standard.

Fresh Water

CAS

CMC

CCC

Priority Pollutant

Number

(l-ig/L)

(l-ig/L)

1

Antimony

7440360

2

Arsenic

7440382

340 A,D,K

150 A,D,K

3

Beryllium

7440417

4

Cadmium

7440439

4.3 D,E,K

2.2 D,E,K

5a

Chromium III

16065831

570 D,E,K

74 D,E,K

5b

Chromium VI

18540299

16 D,K

11 D,K

6

Copper

7440508

13 D,E,K,CC

9.0 D,E,K,CC

7

Lead

7439921

65 D,E,BB,GG

2.5 D,E,BB,GG

8

Mercury

7439976

1.4 D,K,HH

0.77 D,K,HH

9

Nickel

7440020

470 D,E,K

52 D,E,K

10

Selenium

7782492

L,R,T

50 T

11

Silver

7440223

3.4 D,E,G

12

Thallium

7440280

13

Zinc

7440666

120 D,E,K

120 D,E,K

14

Cyanide

57125

22 K,Q

5.2 K,Q

15

Asbestos

1332214

16

2,3,7,8-TCDD Dioxin

1746016

17

Acrolein

107028

18

Acrylonitrile

107131

19

Benzene

71432

20

Bromoform

75252

21

Carbon Tetrachloride

56235

22

Chlorobenzene

108907

23

Chlorodibromomethane

124481

24

Chloroethane

75003

Water + Organism Organism Only

42 D,BB

14 B,Z 0.018 CMS J,Z IZ J,Z Total J,Z Total 1300 U J

0.051 B 4600 B 11,000

780 0.66 B,C 71 B,C 360 B,C 4.4 B,C 21,000 B,H 34 BC

Fresh Water

CAS

CMC

ccc

Priority Pollutant

Number

(lig/L)

(lig/L)

25

2-Chloroethylvinyl Ether

110758

26

Chloroform

67663

27

Dichlorobromomethane

75274

28

1,1 -Dichloroethane

75343

29

1,2-Dichloroethane

107062

30

1,1 -Dichloroethylene

75354

31

1,2-Dichloropropane

78875

32

1,3-Dichloropropene

542756

33

Ethylbenzene

100414

34

Methyl Bromide

74839

35

Methyl Chloride

74873

36

Methylene Chloride

75092

37

1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

79345

38

Tetrachloroethylene

127184

39

Toluene

108883

40

1,2-Trans-dichloroethylene

156605

41

1,1,1 -Trichloroethane

71556

42

1,1,2-Trichloroethane

79005

43

Trichloroethylene

79016

44

Vinyl Chloride

75014

45

2-Chlorophenol

95578

46

2,4-Dichlorophenol

120832

47

2,4-Dimethylphenol

105679

48

2-Methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol

534521

49

2,4-Dinitrophenol

51285

CMC CCC Water + Organism Organism Only

Fresh Water

CAS

CMC

ccc

Priority Pollutant

Number

(MB/L)

(lig/L)

50

2-Nitrophenol

88755

51

4-Nitrophenol

100027

52

3-Methyl-4-chlorophenol

59507

53

Pentachlorophenol

87865

19 F,K

15 F,K

54

Phenol

108952

55

2,4,6- Trichlorophenol

88062

56

Acenaphthene

83329

57

Acenaphthalene

208968

58

Anthracene

120127

59

Benzidine

92875

60

Benzo(a)anthracene

56553

61

Benzo(a)pyrene

50328

62

Benzo(b)fluoranthene

205992

63

Benzo(g,h,i)perylene

191242

64

Benzo(k)fluoranthene

207089

65

Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane

111911

66

Bis(2-chloroethyl)ether

111444

67

Bis(2-chloroisopropyl)ether

39638329

68

Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalatex

117817

69

4-Bromophenyl Phenylether

101553

70

Butylbenzyl phthalate™

85687

71

2-Chloronaphthalene

91587

72

4-Chlorophenyl Phenylether

7005723

73

Chrysene

218019

74

Dibenzo(a,h,)anthracene

53703

CMC CCC Water + Organism Organism Only

Fresh Water

CAS

CMC

ccc

Priority Pollutant

Number

(lig/L)

(lig/L)

75

1,2-Dichlorobenzene

95501

76

1,3-Dichlorobenzene

541731

77

1,4-Dichlorobenzene

106467

78

3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine

91941

79

Diethylphthalate™

84662

80

Dimethylphthalate

131113

81

Di-n-Butylphthalate

84742

82

2,4-Dinitrotoluene

121142

83

2,6-Dinitrotoluene

606202

84

Di-n-Octylphthalate

117840

85

1,2-Diphenylhydrazine

122667

86

Fluoranthene

206440

87

Fluorene

86737

88

Hexachlorobenzene

118741

89

Hexachlorobutadiene

87683

90

Hexachlorocyclopentadiene

77474

91

Hexachloroethane

67721

92

Ideno( 1,2,3-cd)pyrene

193395

93

Isophorone

78591

94

Naphthalene

91203

95

Nitrobenzene

98953

96

N-Nitrosodimethylamine

62759

97

N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine

621647

98

N-Nitrosodiphenylamine

86306

99

Phenanthrene

85018

CMC CCC Water + Organism Organism Only

Human Health

Fresh Water Salt Water for Consumption of

Human Health

Fresh Water Salt Water for Consumption of

CAS

CMC

CCC

CMC

ccc

Water + Organism

Organism Only

Priority Pollutant

Number

(M. g/L)

(M g/L)

(M g/L)

(M g/L)

(M g/L)

(H g/L))

100

Pyrene

129000

960 B

11,000 B

101

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

120821

260 Z

940

102

Aldrin

309002

3.0 G

1.3 G

0.00013 B,C

0.00014 B,C

103

alpha-BHC

319846

0.0039 B,C

0.013 B,C

104

beta-BHC

319857

0.014 B,C

0.046 B,C

105

gamma-BHC (Lindane)

58899

0.019 C

0.063 C

106

delta-BHC

319868

107

Chlordane

57749

2.4 G

0.0043 G,AA

0.09 G

0.004 G,AA

0.0021 B,C

0.0022 B,C

108

4,4'-DDT

50293

1.1 G

0.001 G,AA

0.13 G

0.001 G,AA

0.00059 B,C

0.00059 B,C

109

4,4'-DDE

72559

0.00059 B,C

0.00059 B,C

110

4,4'-DDD

72548

0.00083 B,C

0.00084 B,C

111

Dieldrin

60571

0.24 K

0.056 K,O

0.71 G

0.0019 G,AA

0.00014 B,C

0.00014 B,C

112

alpha-Endosulfan

959988

0.22 G,y

0.056 G,y

0.034 G,y

0.0087 G,y

110 B

240 B

113

beta-Endosulfan

33213659

0.22 G,y

0.056 G,y

0.034 G,y

0.0087 G,y

110 B

240 B

114

Endosulfan sulfate

1031078

110 B

240 B

115

Endrin

72208

0.086 K

0.036 K,O

0.037 G

0.0023 G,AA

0.76 B

0.81 B

116

Endrinaldehyde

7421934

0.76 B

0.81 B

117

Heptachlor

76448

0.52 G

0.0038 G,AA

0.053 G

0.0036 G,AA

0.00021 B,C

0.00021 B,C

118

Heptachlor epoxide

1024573

0.52 G,V

0.0038 G,AA

0.053 G, V

0.0036 G, VAA

0.00010 B,C

0.00011 B,C

119

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

0.014 N,AA

0.03 N,AA

0.00017 B,C,P

0.00017 B,C,P

120

Toxaphene

8001352

0.73

0.0002 AA

0.21

0.0002 AA

0.00073 B,C

0.00075 B,C

A This recommended water quality criterion was derived from data for arsenic (III) but is applied here to total arsenic, which might imply that arsenic (III) and arsenic (V) are equally toxic to aquatic life and that their toxicities are additive. In the arsenic criteria document (EPA 440/5-84-033, January 1985), Species Mean Acute Values are given for both arsenic (III) and arsenic (V) for five species, and the ratios of the SMAVs for each species range from 0.6 to 1.7. Chronic values are available for both arsenic (III) and arsenic (V) for one species; for the fathead minnow, the chronic value for arsenic (V) is 0.29 times the chronic value for arsenic (III). No data are available concerning whether the toxicities of the forms of arsenic to aquatic organisms are additive.

B This criterion has been revised to reflect The Environmental Protection Agency's q1* or RfD, as contained in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) as of April 8, 1998. The fish tissue bioconcentration factor (BCF) from the 1980 Ambient Water Quality Criteria document was retained in each case.

C This criterion is based on carcinogenicity of 10-6 risk. Alternative risk levels may be obtained by moving the decimal point (for example, for a risk level of 10-5, move the decimal point in the recommended criterion one place to the right).

D Freshwater and saltwater criteria for metals are expressed in terms of the dissolved metal in the water column. The recommended water quality criteria value was calculated by using the previous 304(a) aquatic life criteria expressed in terms of total recoverable metal, and multiplying it by a conversion factor (CF). The term CF represents the recommended conversion factor for converting a metal criterion expressed as the total recoverable fraction in the water column to a criterion expressed as the dissolved fraction in the water column. (Conversion factors for saltwater CCCs are not currently available. Conversion factors derived for saltwater CMCs have been used for both saltwater CMCs and CCCs.) See "Office of Water Policy and Technical Guidance on Interpretation and Implementation of Aquatic Life Metals Criteria," October 1, 1993, by Martha G. Prothro, Acting Assistant Administrator for Water, available from the Water Resource Center, USEPA, 401 M St., SW, mail code RC4100, Washington, DC 20460; and 40CFR §131.36(b)(1). Conversion factors applied in the table can be found in Appendix A to the Preamble-Conversion Factors for Dissolved Metals.

E The freshwater criterion for this metal is expressed as a function of hardness (mg/L) in the water column. The value given here corresponds to a hardness of 100 mg/L. Criteria values for other hardness may be calculated from the following: CMC (dissolved) = exp{mA [ln(hardness)]+ bA}(CF), or CCC (dissolved) = exp{mC [ln(hardness)]+ bC}(CF) and the parameters specified in Appendix B to the Preamble-Parameters for Calculating Freshwater Dissolved Metals Criteria that Are Hardness-Dependent.

F Freshwater aquatic life values for pentachlorophenol are expressed as a function of pH and are calculated as follows: CMC = exp(1.005(pH) - 4.869); CCC = exp(1.005(pH) - 5.134). Values displayed in the table correspond to a pH of 7.8.

G This criterion is based on 304(a) aquatic life criterion issued in 1980 and was issued in one of the following documents: Aldrin/Dieldrin (EPA 440/5-80-019), Chlordane (EPA 440/5-80-027), DDT (EPA 440/5-80-038), Endosulfan (EPA 440/5-80-046), Endrin (EPA 440/5-80-047), Heptachlor (440/5-80-052), Hexachlo-rocyclohexane (EPA 440/5-80-054), Silver (EPA 440/5-80-071). The minimum data requirements and derivation procedures were different in the 1980 guidelines than in the 1985 guidelines. For example, a "CMC" derived using the 1980 Guidelines was derived to be used as an instantaneous maximum. If assessment is to be done using an averaging period, the values given should be divided by 2 to obtain a value that is more comparable to a CMC derived using the 1985 guidelines.

H No criterion for protection of human health from consumption of aquatic organisms excluding water was presented in the 1980 criteria document or in the 1986 Quality Criteria for Water. Nevertheless, sufficient information was presented in the 1980 document to allow the calculation of a criterion, even though the results of such a calculation were not shown in the document.

I This criterion for asbestos is the maximum contaminant level (MCL) developed under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).

J EPA has not calculated a human health criterion for this contaminant. However, permit authorities should address this contaminant in NPDES permit actions using the state's existing narrative criteria for toxics.

K This recommended criterion is based on a 304(a) aquatic life criterion that was issued in the 1995 Updates: Water Quality Criteria Documents for the Protection of Aquatic Life in Ambient Water, (EPA 820-B-96-001, September 1996). This value was derived using the GLI Guidelines (60FR15393-15399, March 23, 1995; 40CFR132 Appendix A); the difference between the 1985 guidelines and the GLI guidelines are explained on page iv of the 1995 updates. None of the decisions concerning the derivation of this criterion were affected by any considerations that are specific to the Great Lakes.

L The CMC = 1/[(f1/CMC1) + (f2/CMC2)] where f1 and f2 are the fractions of total selenium that are treated as selenite and selenate, respectively, and CMC1 and CMC2 are 185.9 |ig/L and 12.83 |ig/L, respectively.

M EPA is currently reassessing the criteria for arsenic. Upon completion of the reassessment the agency will publish revised criteria as appropriate.

N PCBs are a class of chemicals which includes aroclors 1242, 1254, 1221, 1232, 1248, 1260, and 1016 (CAS numbers 53469219, 11097691, 11104282, 11141165, 12672296, 11096825 and 12674112 respectively). The aquatic life criteria apply to this set of PCBs.

O The derivation of the CCC for this pollutant did not consider exposure through the diet, which is probably important for aquatic life occupying upper trophic levels.

P This criterion applies to total PCBs, i.e., the sum of all congener or isomer analyses.

Q This recommended water quality criterion is expressed as | g free cyanide (as CN)/L.

R This value was announced (61FR58444-58449, November 14, 1996) as a proposed GLI 303(c) aquatic life criterion. The EPA is currently working on this criterion; therefore, this value might change substantially in the near future.

S This recommended water quality criterion refers to the inorganic form only.

T This recommended water quality criterion is expressed in terms of total recoverable metal in the water column. It is scientifically acceptable to use the conversion factor of 0.922 that was used in the GLI to convert this to a value that is expressed in terms of dissolved metal.

U The organoleptic effect criterion is more stringent than the value for priority toxic pollutants.

V This value was derived from data for heptachlor, and the criteria document provides insufficient data to estimate the relative toxicities of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide.

W Although the EPA has not published a final criteria document for this compound, it is the EPA's understanding that sufficient data exist to allow calculation of aquatic criteria. It is anticipated that the industry intends to publish in the peer reviewed literature draft aquatic life criteria generated in accordance with EPA guidelines. The EPA will review such criteria for possible issuance as national WQC.

X There is a full set of aquatic life toxicity data that show that DEHP is not toxic to aquatic organisms at or below its solubility limit.

Y This value was derived from data for endosulfan and is most appropriately applied to the sum of alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan.

Z A more stringent MCL has been issued by the EPA. Refer to drinking water regulations (40 CFR 141) or safe drinking water hotline (1-800-426-4791) for values.

AA This CCC is based on the Final Residue Value procedure in the 1985 guidelines. Since the publication of the Great Lakes Aquatic Life Criteria Guidelines in 1995 (60FR15393-15399, March 23, 1995), the Agency no longer uses the Final Residue Value procedure for deriving CCCs for new or revised 304(a) aquatic life criteria.

BB This water quality criterion is based on a 304(a) aquatic life criterion that was derived using the 1985 guidelines (Guidelines for Deriving Numerical National Water Quality Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Organisms and Their Uses, PB85-227049, January 1985) and was issued in one of the following criteria documents: Arsenic (EPA 440/5-84-033), Cadmium (EPA 440/5-84-032), Chromium (EPA 440/5-84-029), Copper (EPA 440/5-84-031), Cyanide (EPA 440/5-84028), Lead (EPA 440/5-84-027), Nickel (EPA 440/5-86-004), Pentachlorophenol (EPA 440/5-86-009), Toxaphene, (EPA 440/5-86-006), Zinc (EPA 440/5-87- 003).

CC When the concentration of dissolved organic carbon is elevated, copper is substantially less toxic, and use of Water-Effect Ratios might be appropriate.

DD The selenium criteria document (EPA 440/5-87-006, September 1987) provides that, if selenium is as toxic to saltwater fishes in the field as it is to freshwater fishes in the field, the status of the fish community should be monitored whenever the concentration of selenium exceeds 5.0 |ig/L in salt water because the saltwater CCC does not take into account uptake via the food chain.

EE This recommended water quality criterion was derived on page 43 of the mercury criteria document (EPA 440/5-84-026, January 1985). The saltwater CCC of 0.025 |ig/L given on page 23 of the criteria document is based on the Final Residue Value procedure in the 1985 guidelines. Since the publication of the Great Lakes Aquatic Life Criteria Guidelines in 1995 (60FR15393-15399, March 23, 1995), the Agency no longer uses the Final Residue Value procedure for deriving CCCs for new or revised 304(a) aquatic life criteria.

FF This recommended water quality criterion was derived in Ambient Water Quality Criteria Saltwater Copper Addendum (Draft, April 14, 1995) and was promulgated in the Interim Final National Toxics Rule (60FR22228-222237, May 4, 1995).

GG EPA is actively working on this criterion; therefore, this recommended water quality criterion may change substantially in the near future.

HH This recommended water quality criterion was derived from data for inorganic mercury (II) but is applied here to total mercury. If a substantial portion of the mercury in the water column is methylmercury, this criterion will probably be under-protective. In addition, even though inorganic mercury is converted to methylmercury and methylmercury bioaccumulates to a great extent, this criterion does not account for uptake via the food chain because sufficient data were not available when the criterion was derived.

TABLE 2

Water Quality Criteria: Nonpriority Toxic Pollutants

Nonpriority Pollutant Number

2 Aluminum (pH 6.5-9.0) 7429905

3 Ammonia 7664417

4 Aesthetic qualities —

6 Barium 7440393

7 Boron 7440428

8 Chloride 16887006

9 Chlorine 7782505

10 Chlorophenoxy herbicide 93721 2,4,5-TP

11 Chlorophenoxy herbicide 94757 2,4-D

12 Chloropyrifos 2921882

14 Demeton 8065483

15 bis(chloromethyl)Ether 542881

16 Gases, total dissolved —

17 Guthion 86500

19 Hexachlorocyclohexane (technical) 319868

20 Iron 7439896

21 Malathion 121755

Fresh Water CMC CCC

Salt Water CMC CCC

Human Health for Consumption of

Water + Organism Organism Only

Freshwater criteria are pH dependent, see EPA 822-R-98-008. Saltwater criteria are pH and temperature dependent, see EPA 440/5-88-004. Narrative statement, see Gold Book.* For primary recreation and shellfish uses, see Gold Book.*

860,000 G 19

0.083 G

Narrative statement, see Gold Book.*

0.041 G 0.011 G 0.0056 G Narrative statement, see Gold Book.*

Narrative statement, see Gold Book.*

0.01 F — 0.01 F Narrative statement, see Gold Book.*

1,000 A

100 A,C

0.00013 E

0.0123 300 A

0.00078 E

0.0414

Nonpriority Pollutant Number

22 Manganese 7439965

23 Methoxychlor 72435

24 Mirex 2385855

25 Nitrates 14797558

26 Nitrosamines —

27 Dinitrophenols 25550587

28 N-Nitrosodibutylamine 924163

29 N-Nitrosodiethylamine 55185

30 N-Nitrosopyrrolidine 930552

32 Oxygen, dissolved 7782447

33 Parathion 56382

34 Pentachlorobenzene 608935

36 Phosphorus, elemental 7723140

37 Phosphorus, phosphate —

38 Solids, dissolved (and salinity) —

39 Solids, suspended (and turbidity) —

40 Sulfide, hydrogen sulfide 7783064

41 Tainting substances —

42 Temperature —

43 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene 95943

45 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol 95954

Salt Water CMC CCC

Water + Organism Organism Only

Narrative statement, see Gold Book.* Warmwater and coldwater matrix, see Gold Book.* 0.065 J 0.013 J — —

— — — 0.1 F,K Narrative statement, see Gold Book.*

Species dependent criteria, see Gold Book.*

— 2.0 F — 2.0 F Narrative statement, see Gold Book.*

Species dependent criteria, see Gold Book.*

10,000 A 0.0008

250,000 A

100 A

1.24

A This human health criterion is the same as originally published in the Red Book which predates the 1980 methodology and did not utilize the fish ingestion BCF approach. This same criterion value is now published in the Gold Book.*

B The organoleptic effect criterion is more stringent than the value presented in the nonpriority pollutants table.

C A more stringent maximum contaminant level (MCL) has been issued by the EPA under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Refer to drinking water regulations 4OCFR141 or the safe drinking water hotline (1-800-426-4791) for values.

D According to the procedures described in the Guidelines for Deriving Numerical National Water Quality Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Organisms and Their Uses — except possibly where a very sensitive species is important at a site — freshwater aquatic life should be protected if both conditions specified in Appendix C to the Preamble-Calculation of Freshwater Ammonia Criterion are satisfied.

E This criterion has been revised to reflect The Environmental Protection Agency's q1* or RfD, as contained in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) as of April 8, 1998. The fish tissue bioconcentration factor (BCF) used to derive the original criterion was retained in each case.

F The derivation of this value is presented in the Red Book (EPA 440/9-76-023, July, 1976).

G This value is based on a 304(a) aquatic life criterion that was derived using the 1985 guidelines (Guidelines for Deriving Numerical National Water Quality Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Organisms and Their Uses, PB85-227049, January 1985) and was issued in one of the following criteria documents: Aluminum (EPA 440/5-86-008); Chloride (EPA 440/5-88-001); Chloropyrifos (EPA 440/5-86-005).

I This value is expressed in terms of total recoverable metal in the water column.

J This value is based on a 304(a) aquatic life criterion that was issued in the 1995 Updates: Water Quality Criteria Documents for the Protection of Aquatic Life in Ambient Water (EPA-820-B-96-001). This value was derived using the GLI Guidelines (60FR15393-15399, March 23, 1995; 40CFR132 Appendix A); the differences between the 1985 guidelines and the GLI guidelines are explained on page iv of the 1995 updates. No decision concerning this criterion was affected by any considerations that are specific to the Great Lakes.

K According to page 181 of the Red Book,

"For open ocean waters where the depth is substantially greater than the euphotic zone, the pH should not be changed more than 0.2 units from the naturally occurring variation or any case outside the range of 6.5 to 8.5. For shallow, highly productive coastal and estuarine areas where naturally occurring pH variations approach the lethal limits of some species, changes in pH should be avoided but in any case should not exceed the limits established for fresh water, i.e., 6.5-9.0."

TABLE 2 (continued)

Water Quality Criteria: Nonpriority Toxic Pollutants

L There are three major reasons why the use of Water-Effect Ratios might be appropriate. (1) The value of 87 | g/L is based on a toxicity test with the striped bass in water with pH = 6.5-6.6 and hardness <10 mg/L. Data in Aluminum Water-Effect Ratio for the 3MPlant Effluent Discharge, Middleway, West Virginia (May 1994) indicate that aluminum is substantially less toxic at higher pH and hardness, but the effects of pH and hardness are not well-quantified at this time. (2) In tests with the brook trout at low pH and hardness, effects increased with increasing concentrations of total aluminum even though the concentration of dissolved aluminum was constant, indicating that total recoverable is a more appropriate measurement than dissolved, at least when particulate aluminum is primarily aluminum hydroxide particles. In surface waters, however, the total recoverable procedure might measure aluminum associated with clay particles, which might be less toxic than aluminum associated with aluminum hydroxide. (3) The EPA is aware of field data indicating that many high quality waters in the U.S. contain more than 87 |ig aluminum/L, when either total recoverable or dissolved is measured.

M U.S. EPA. 1973, Water Quality Criteria 1972. EPA-R3-73-033. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA; U.S. EPA. 1977. Temperature Criteria for Freshwater Fish: Protocol and Procedures. EPA-600/3-77-061. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA.

N This value was announced (62FR42554, August 7, 1997) as a proposed 304(a) aquatic life criterion. Although the EPA has not responded to public comment, it is publishing this as a 304(a) criterion as guidance for states and tribes to consider when adopting water quality criteria.

O U.S. EPA, 1986, Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Dissolved Oxygen. EPA 440/5-86-003, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA.

TABLE 3

Water Quality Criteria: Organoleptic Effects (Taste and Odor)

CAS Organoleptic Effect Criteria Pollutant Number (l-ig/L)

1

Acenaphthene

83329

20

2

Chlorobenzene (monochlorobenzene)

108907

20

3

3-Chlorophenol

0.1

4

4-Chlorophenol

106489

0.1

5

2,3-Dichlorophenol

0.04

6

2,5-Dichlorophenol

0.5

7

2,6-Dichlorophenol

87650

0.2

8

3,4-Dichlorophenol

0.3

9

2,4,5-Trichlorophenol

95954

1

10

2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

88062

2

11

2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

58902

1

12

2-Methyl-4-chlorophenol

1800

13

3-Methyl-4-chlorophenol

59507

3000

14

3-Methyl-6-chlorophenol

20

15

2-Chlorophenol

95578

0.1

16

Copper

7440508

1000

17

2,4-Dichlorophenol

120832

0.3

18

2,4-Dimethylphenol

105679

400

19

Hexachlorocyclopentadiene

77474

1

20

Nitrobenzene

98953

30

21

Pentachlorophenol

87865

30

22

Phenol

108952

300

23

Zinc

7440666

5000

Note: The reference for pollutants 1 through 22 is the EPA Gold Book.* The reference for pollutant 23 is 45 FR79341.

Note: The reference for pollutants 1 through 22 is the EPA Gold Book.* The reference for pollutant 23 is 45 FR79341.

The compilation contains 304(a) criteria for pollutants with toxicity-based criteria as well as nontoxicity-based criteria. The basis for the nontoxicity-based criteria is organoleptic effects (e.g., taste and odor) that would make water and edible aquatic life unpalatable but not toxic to humans.

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