Survive Global Water Shortages

Water Freedom System

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Water Freedom System Summary

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Groundwater Pollution Hazard

Table 1.1 shows a classification of sources and causes of groundwater pollution. The 20 million residential cesspool and septic tank soil absorption systems alone discharge about 400 billion gallons of sewage per day into the ground, which in some instances may contribute to groundwater pollution. This is in addition to sewage from restaurants, hotels, motels, resorts, office buildings, factories, and other establishments not on public sewers.11 The contribution from industrial and other sources shown in Table 1.1 is unknown. It is being inventoried by the EPA, and is estimated at 900 billion gal year,12 the EPA, with state participation, is also developing a groundwater protection strategy. Included in the strategy is the classification of all groundwater and protection of existing and potential drinking water sources and ecologically vital waters.

Drinking Water Additives

Potentially hazardous chemicals or contaminants may inadvertently be added directly or indirectly to drinking water in treatment, well drilling, and distribution. Other contaminants potentially may leach from paints, coatings, pumps, storage tanks, distribution system pipe and plumbing systems, valves, pipe fittings, and other equipment and products. Chemicals (direct additives) used in water treatment for coagulation, corrosion control, and other purposes may contain contaminants such as heavy metals or organic substances that may pose a health hazard. In addition, significant concentrations of organic and inorganic contaminants (indirect additives) may leach or be extracted from various drinking water system components. Since its inception, the EPA has maintained an advisory list of acceptable products for drinking water contact, but this function was transferred to the private sector on April 7, 1990. In 1985, the EPA provided seed funding for a consortium to establish a program...

Water System Design Principles Water Quantity

The quantity of water upon which to base the design of a water system should be determined in the preliminary planning stages. Future water demand is based on social, economic, and land-use factors, all of which can be expected to change with time. Population projections are a basic consideration. They are made using arithmetic, geometric, and demographic methods and with graphical comparisons with the growth of other comparable cities or towns of greater population.148 Adjustments should be made for hospital and other institution populations, industries, fire protection, military reservations, transients, and tourists, as well as for leakage and unaccounted-for water, which may amount to 10 to 15 percent or more. Universal metering is necessary for an accounting. Numerous studies have been made to determine the average per-capita water use for water system design. Health departments and other agencies have design guides, and standard texts give additional information. In any case,...

Solar Water Purification At Household Level

Some low-cost alternatives for water purification by solar energy are analyzed, mainly those feasible in rural communities. These alternatives were divided into thermal and photochemical processes and the advantages and limitations of each method are presented. Results of the efficiency of the purification processes using a flat solar collector, as well as polyethylene bags and containers and glass flasks directly exposed to the sun, are presented. The evaluation of a prototype showed that the process is useful even on cloudy days since it depends more on the quantity of total radiation than on direct radiation only. Experimental results show that the water from kitchen and bathroom can be treated by solar energy and its chemical oxygen demand reduces up to considerable limit that it can be recycled for gardening or for toilet flushing purpose. By employing catalyst recovery and reuse, the operation and maintenance cost reduces considerably.

For Disinfection of Different Water Systems

Abstract Water resources are becoming limited due to the contamination problems caused by life threatening human pathogens. Traditional water purification methods, viz, chlorination, radiation and filtration are used for the reduction of pathogenic bacteria in water systems, have many disadvantages. Phage mediated biocontrol of human pathogens in the water bodies has the potential to reduce the risk of spread of pathogens and problem of emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains through transduction. Successful application of phages requires complete understanding of the microbial community dynamics, and physical and chemical parameters of the system. In addition, constant monitoring for the emergence of resistant bacterial strain is essential. Phage based pathogen removal is effective, provided, phage usage is optimized to deal with the factors affecting phage treatment in different environmental conditions. Phages can be used as potential disinfectant in the natural...

Fate And Transport Concepts For Groundwater Systems

Figure 1.6 showed iso-concentration circles (isopleths lines of equal TCE concentration) for the area surrounding the disposal site that were obtained by fitting a step-model to field measurements of TCE concentrations in the groundwater (explanatory modeling). Assuming, as expected, that TCE is present in the aquifer as a dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), it solubilizes slowly, and the input of TCE can therefore be considered a continuous source (step input over an extended period of time). You will note that the isopleth near TSN-05 injection well represents a concentration of 1000 parts per billion (ppb), while the lowest concentration shown in this figure is 3 ppb (the maximum allowed drinking water concentration). If no remedial action was to be taken in 1994 (the proposed year of remediation if any was to be attempted) and the DNAPL continued to release TCE to the ground-

Adsorption Of Natural Contaminants In Drinking Water Treatment

Natural organic material is an issue in drinking water treatment as it creates increased demand for chemicals such as coagulants, ozone and chlorine. It also reacts with chlorine and ozone to produce a range of unwanted oxidation by-products. In conventional treatment processes coagulation flocculation is used to remove a portion of the NOM. Activated carbon can also be a useful technique for the removal of NOM. The strong electrostatic influences present at neutral or higher pH can be reduced by increasing the ionic strength of the solution. Summers and Roberts 27 studied the effect of increased ionic strength on the adsorption of a commercial humic acid (HA) onto five activated carbons. They expected a decrease in adsorption on a positively-charged activated carbon with a screening of the electrostatic attraction between the surface and the carboxyl groups of the HA. The increase in adsorption that they observed was attributed to a decrease in the size of the molecules with the...

Pharmaceutical And Edc Removal During Drinking Water Treatment

Despite the reductions in pharmaceutical and EDC concentrations during conventional and advanced wastewater treatment, absolute removal of these target compounds is generally not practical. Although additional reductions in concentration will be achieved through natural attenuation in the environment (e.g., dilution, photolysis, biotransformation biodegradation, sorption to sediments), many pharmaceuticals and EDCs persist in the environment for great distances away from the point of wastewater discharge. Thus, a better understanding of their removal through different drinking water treatment processes is necessary, as these compounds may be present at minute concentrations (e.g., low level ng L) in drinking water sources. The following section discusses pharmaceutical and EDC removal by conventional drinking water treatment processes.

Lipidwater Systems 561 Solubility of Solutes in Lipids

Prior to our discussion of the solute partition in a lipid-water system, it is instructive to examine first the solubility data of common solutes in a lipid solvent. This will give us a clear picture on the merits of the Flory-Huggins model versus Raoult's law for handling solute solubility in lipids. Triglycerides are considered to be the lipids of most interest because they are an essential part of the lipids in animals and plants and because they have very unique molecular sizes, as mentioned earlier. Triolen (short for glyceryl trioleate, C57H104O6 MW 885.4) is selected as a model lipid because of its abundance and structural similarity to other triglycerides in organisms. It is selected also because it is a liquid at room temperature that greatly facilitates solubility measurements for solid compounds (note that most nonpolar liquids are completely miscible with triolein).

Water Resources In Jordan

Water resources in Jordan are very limited, among the lowest in the world on a per capita basis. The annual per capita share of water is currently estimated at 135 m3 and this Figure is expected to drop to 90 m3 in the year 2020 as a result of the disproportional increase in population relative to water resources development. Moreover, about 63 of the country's water resources are consumed in irrigated agriculture. Jordan with an area of around 90,000 Km2 is characterized by Mediterranean semiarid climate in its western part to arid climate in its eastern part and in the Jordan valley. The arid climatic conditions occupy more than 90 of the area of Jordan. More than 96 of the area in Jordan receives less than 300 mm year. The long term annual average of rainfall over Jordan is about 8,366 MCM year. Surface runoff flow in Jordan was estimated to be around 885.6 MCM divided into 386.1 as base flow and 499.5 flood flow. For groundwater resources the safe yield is about 294 MCM...

Drinking Water Standards

The EPA has no primary drinking water standard for aluminum. The EPA secondary drinking water standard (nonenforceable) is expressed as a range 0.05 to 0.2 mg L. The EPA recommends that 0.05 mg L be met where possible but allows states to determine the required level on a case-by-case basis because water treatment technologies often use aluminum salts to remove color and turbidity and cannot always achieve the lower value. The EPA recommends that aluminum in drinking water does not exceed 0.2 mg L because of taste and odor problems. In the presence of microorganisms, aluminum can react with iron, manganese, silica and organic material to form ne sediments that can appear at the consumer's tap. If dissolved aluminum exceeds 0.1 mg L, levels of iron that are normally acceptable may produce discoloration and staining. No lifetime health advisory has been established. This is the concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over 70 years of exposure...

Bioremediation of Arsenic from Contaminated Water

Abstract Presently, over 100 million people worldwide are exposed to arsenic contaminated groundwater making it one of the largest environmental catastrophes. Arsenic originates from the earth's crust which finds its way into groundwater as a result of various geological, biological and even anthropological processes. Toxicity effects of arsenic have been reported in plants, animals and most vividly in humans. WHO has recently brought down the permissible limit of arsenic in drinking water to 10 mg L. Various physicochemical and biological arsenic remediation methods have been reported and applied to render groundwater potable for human use. Microbial remediation of arsenic from aquatic environments presents an interesting option because of its high efficiency, low cost and most importantly its ecofriendly nature. Microbial bioremediation of arsenic occurs through various processes. Microbially mediated arsenic redox reactions are one of the most important phenomena for arsenic...

Arsenic Contamination of Water Resources

Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a huge problem affecting millions of people in several countries. A number of large aquifers in various parts of the world have been identified with arsenic occurring at concentrations above 10 mg L, the maximum concentration limit (MCL) recommended for drinking water by the World Health Organization (WHO) (Wang and Zhao 2009). Most of these aquifers are in parts of Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, northern China, Hungary, India (West Bengal), Mexico, Romania, Taiwan (China) and many parts of the USA. India (West Bengal) and Bangladesh is the region worst affected by groundwater arsenic problem (Harvey et al 2002 Jahan et al. 2006) . The maximum severity is in Bangladesh where groundwater is contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic from the alluvial and deltaic sediments that form the aquifers. It has been estimated that about 75 million people are at risk of developing health effects associated with the ingestion of arsenic (Karim 2000 Jahan...

Current trends and RD needs for removal of trace organic contaminants from potable water

Regarding the design and operation of modern water treatment processes, to remove toxic pollutants including pesticides, there are two major issues with very significant technological, economic and (above all) environmental and human health impact, that have to be successfully addressed by the scientific community (a) Production of safe potable water. This target entails the design of effective, environmentally friendly and economically attractive processes capable of meeting the stringent drinking water standards, even in cases of feedwater with variable load of pollutants (including pesticides) of uncertain type and concentration. (b) Elimination or disposal of liquid and solid wastes from the water treatment process, after appropriate treatment to render them safe for humans and the environment this problem is especially acute due to the high concentration of pollutants retained in the wastes. It is evident that development of integrated processes, successfully coping with the...

Studies on Atmospheric Noble Gas Retention in Groundwater Systems Cold Groundwater

In the first three samples of Table 13.6 the noble gas deduced temperature, T3, differs from the ambient air temperature at the time of sample collection, T6, revealing no equilibration at the point of emergence (in agreement with the previous paragraph). The last spring (Fara), however, shows T3 T6. This water issues below a slope of tallus, and equilibration of noble gases could take place prior to sample collection.

Plasmodesmata and herbicide translocation under water stress

When plants are subjected to stress, metabolic reactions tend to decrease proportionally. Because herbicides are less translocated and, as a consequence, become more available to reactions of metabolization, conjugation, or trapping, many herbicides have their action strongly reduced if plants are under stress before or after application (Cataneo et al., 2003). In auxin-like herbicides, the herbicidal activity is typically resumed when metabolism is increased after water stress. Auxin-like substances previously either applied (synthetic) or produced (natural) are able to reach the site of action after stress is removed and the plant reaches the usual state of turgescence (Drake & Carr, 1978). Although plasmodesmata are not the only route of translocation these substances take, they can play an important role in the translocation of auxin-like herbicides, and possibly other classes of herbicides, under moderate water stress.

Routes of surfactants and their metabolites from surface to drinking waters

The mobility of slowly degradable compounds or persistent metabolites present in surface water or bank filtration-enriched ground water is of particular concern in the production of potable water. Certain surfactants, and especially their polar metabolites among others, have the potential to bypass technical purification units used, which may include flocculation, (active charcoal) filtration, ozonation or chlori-nation. As such, these compounds can reach drinking water destined for human consumption 4-6 . In most cases the origin of surfactant residues and their degradation intermediates in raw water is from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents (see Chapters 6.1 and 6.2) or direct emissions of wastewater, with the latter still common in many less developed countries. In the production of drinking water from river water, the removal efficiencies of polar pollutants generally depends on their nature and on the type and arrangement of the natural and or installed technical...

Risks arising from the presence of surfactants and their degradation products in drinking waters

Regarding the reported SPC concentrations of 2 mgL 1 in drinking water from the Llobregat waterworks described in Fig. 6.6.4, and assuming that a 60 kg body weight (BW) person consumes 2 L of water per day, this drinking water level converts to an SPC dose of 0.067 mg kg 1 BW day 1. For LAS, a NOAEL for systemic toxicity has been identified as 69 mgkg 1 BD day 1 36 . On the assumption that SPCs have equivalent toxicities to LAS, then the exposure level to SPCs is 1 million times less than the NOAEL. Based on the very large margin of exposure, it can be concluded that the presence of SPCs in drinking water poses little or no risk to consumers. The applicability of GAC filtration for the removal of nonylphenol (NP) was evaluated using batch adsorption data 39 . The results showed that the sorption capacity of GAC for NP was at least 100 mgg 1 GAC. According to these data it can be concluded that a full-scale GAC filter, depending on the freshness ofthe GAC unit, will be sufficient to...

Description of the Drinking Water Supply System

Dnister is being fed with rain water (50 ), groundwater (30 ) and snow melting water (20 ). Main river flow is rather unstable since it is formed mainly in the hilly area, and this often causes floods. An average water flow in Dnister within Chernivtsi region is about 220 m3 s but during flooding it sometimes raises up to 8,000 m3 s. Water of Dnister is quite muddy and contains relatively high amount of the clay-like particles. Clay particles are delivered to the river because of very intense erosion of the river banks, especially in the upper and middle parts where Dnister flows in a deep river canyon. Only during the winter time the river can freeze-over and then the water becomes comparatively clear. This feature complicates production of the drinking water from this source.

The Measurement Of Dispersion And Sorption In A Simulated Groundwater System

And represents the relative affinity of the pollutant for the solid or liquid phases. Kd values greater than 1.0 show that the pollutant prefers the solid phase to the water phase. In order to incorporate this into the general transport equation for ground-water system, we must relate Kd to the degree to which the velocity of the pollutant in the system will be slowed down do to its preference for the solid phase. This is accomplished by

National Primary Drinking Water Regulations

National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs or primary standards) are legally enforceable standards that apply to public water systems. Primary standards protect public health by limiting the levels of contaminants in drinking water. Vist the list of regulated contaminants with links for more details. Setting Standards for Safe Drinking Water to learn about EPA's standardsetting process National Primary Drinking Water Regulations http epahome exitepa.htm. The complete regulations regarding these contaminants available from the Code of Federal Regulations Website

National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations

National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (NSDWRs or secondary standards) are nonenforceable guidelines regulating contaminants that may cause cosmetic effects (such as skin or tooth discoloration) or aesthetic effects (such as taste, odor, or color) in drinking water. EPA recommends secondary standards to water systems but does not require systems to comply. However, states may choose to adopt them as enforceable standards. List of National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations http epahome exitepa.htm. The complete regulations regarding these contaminants are available from the Code of Federal Regulations Website.

Health Hazards of Nitrates in Drinking Water

Perchlorate Colorado River

Excess nitrate ion in drinking water is a potential health hazard since it can result in methemoglobinemia in newborn infants as well as in adults with a specific enzyme deficiency. The pathological process, in brief, runs as follows. Recently, an increase in the risk of acquiring non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has been found for persons in some communities in Nebraska who consume drinking water having the highest levels (long-term average of 4 ppm or more of nitrogen as nitrate) of nitrate. As discussed in the next section, excess nitrate ion in drinking water is also of concern because of its potential link with stomach cancer. Recent epidemiological investigations have, however, failed to establish any positive, statistically significant relationship between nitrate levels in drinking water and the incidence of stomach cancer. A study reported in 2001 found that older women in Iowa who drank water from municipal supplies having elevated nitrate levels ( 2.46 ppm) were almost three times as...

Synthetic Musks in Drinking Water

The regulations and directives of the EU and the national legislation of the Member States set high standards for the quality of drinking water in terms of chemical and biological,but also organoleptic properties. These latter concern the flavor and odor as criteria for a high-quality drinking water. Studies on the threshold concentrations for the odor of fragrance substances in drinking water also included HHCB and AHTN 37 . The relatively low threshold concentrations of 80 ng L-1 HHCB and 40 ng L-1 AHTN were slightly exceeded in surface waters, which might affect odor if these waters were to be used for the processing of drinking water. The detection of polycyclic musks in drinking water partially processed from surface water confirms this hypothesis 37 . In this context studies should be mentioned dealing with the experimental determination of the distribution pattern of the fragrances in the water-suspended particulate matter system of the River Elbe. These studies suggest that...

Drinking Water Treatment

Clean drinking water is the most important public health factor. But well over 2 billion people worldwide do not have adequate supplies of safe drinking water. Worldwide, between 15 to 20 million babies die every year from water-borne diarrheal diseases such as typhoid fever, dysentery, and cholera. Contaminated water supplies and poor sanitation cause 80 of the diseases that afflict people in the poorest countries. The development of municipal water purification in the last century has allowed cities in the developed countries to be essentially free of water-carried diseases. Since the introduction of filtration and disinfection of drinking water in the U.S., water-borne diseases, such as cholera and typhoid, have been virtually eliminated. Since then, several DBPs (bromodichloromethane, bromoform, chloroform, dichloroacetic acid, and bromate) have been shown to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals at high doses. Some DBPs (bromodichloromethane, chlorite, and certain haloacetic...

The Safe Drinking Water

The critical nature of the water supply problem brought congressional action resulting in Public Law 93-523, known as the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), which was signed into law in 1974, It then became incumbent upon the newly formed Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to interpret the law and establish Drinking Water Standards that apply to all public water systems in the United States, not just those that supply common carriers, as did the U.S. Public Health Standards. The SDWA was further strengthened by passage in 1986 of the SDWA amendments. The SDWA resulted in a significant increase in the number of trace contaminants to be regulated, particularly organic contaminants. The SDWA charged the EPA to establish both enforceable primary drinking water standards for health-related contaminants and nonenforceable secondary drinking water guidelines for contaminants that may adversely affect the aesthetic quality of drinking water. With primary standards, maximum contaminant levels...

Exploitation of Bacteriophages in Various Water Systems

Water Systems (river, lake, pond, and swimming tanks) containing diverse group of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa and metazoan parasites, even when treated with chemical agents, continue to create serious health problems. Radiation, one of the most efficient water treatment procedures, is very expensive for practical implementation, in case of developing countries. Alternatives such as biocontrol agents may prove effective at such levels. There are reports in which phages have been used to control pathogens in aqueous environment, In vitro . EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) worst case water (WCW) microcosm studies were carried out for testing biocontrol of Salmonella species with the help of bacteriophages. The WCW provided a consistent and relatively simple, defined, turbid, aqueous matrix, containing high total organic carbon (TOC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) to simulate swine lagoon effluent. Wells containing WCW were loaded with Salmonella enterica subsp. enteric...

Indicator Pollutants For Drinking Water Supply Source

Taste and odor compounds that are commonly produced in drinking water reservoirs by blue-green algae. To sustain growth and future developments adequate water supply has to be provided. Planning for management of water resources, to bridge the demand supply gap, and to ensure an adequate reliable, safe long-term supply for multiple uses, protection (by using natural systems) of the quality of runoff that fills the reservoirs and recharges the groundwater basins, water conservation, reclamation, underground water (lower grade) storage, and change in our lifestyles (change in mindset), and other sensitive steps and practices have to be initiated. Remember thinking and creativity are the most important human resource. Because of the explosion in technology, globalization and rapid growth, environmental challenges and quality of life issues will always remain with us.

Groundwater Contamination by Organic Chemicals

Ground Water Chemistry

The insecticide dieldrin (Chapter 10), which has been banned since 1992, is the pesticide found most often to exceed human-health guideline levels in U.S. groundwater. Ironically, shallow groundwater aquifers used to supply drinking water are often more polluted by pesticides at greater than acceptable levels than are those in agricultural areas in the United States. Trichloroethene is an industrial solvent, used to dissolve grease on metal, as is perchloroethene. The U.S. MCL for TCE in drinking water is 5 ppb, and the same limit is now used in Canada as well. A 2006 report by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences concluded that TCE is a possible cause of kidney cancer, can impair neurological function, and can cause reproductive and developmental damage. A link between TCE exposure and an abnormally low sperm count in males has been established. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified TCE as probably carcinogenic to humans. drinking water were found...

Analysis of alkylphenol ethoxylates and degradation products in drinking water

In The Netherlands the drinking water supply is largely dependent on water from the rivers Meuse and Rhine. The quality assessment of these rivers is thus a long existing goal of RIWA (Association of River Waterworks, The Netherlands) and the associated water companies, with permanent monitoring for a variety of organic micropollutants in place 11,12 . During a sampling campaign carried out in 1999, alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEO) and degradation products, such as nonylphenol (NP), were also determined in raw, process and drinking waters for the first time 13 . Sampling locations were selected on the basis of RIWA's existing monitoring network. Samples from treatment facilities of the water companies were also taken at various stages of the purification process. The majority of the sites were sampled three times. Further details of sampling criteria and locations can be found in the RIWA report 13 , and in Chapter 3.1. Table 6.6.1 presents the results of the analysis of samples of...

Applications In Drinking Water Treatment

The focus here is on coagulation and flocculation. With slightly contaminated waters the usual sedimentation step after these stages can be omitted, as in direct filtration. Flotation sometimes replaces sedimentation, notably when there is a high level of algae. Both separation processes yield sludges of very high water contents, so that sludge conditioning with polymers and subsequent dewatering are necessary to minimise transportation costs. 5.1. Primary coagulation in drinking water treatment In the production of drinking water a cationic polyelectrolyte of high CD and a low to medium MW such as polyDADMAC can be used instead of a metal salt as the primary coagulant. ECH DMA polymers are also effective. The CD rather than the MW is important in selecting the optimal conditions, and the initial periods of both rapid and slow mixing are critical in the formation of floes 6 . There are fewer examples of polymer-only coagulation in conventional coagulation sedimentation filtration...

Membrane technology A short review of potable water treatment 21 Membrane processes in water treatment

Since the early 1990's membrane filtration has gained momentum and is now considered mainstream technology for removing a broad spectrum of contaminants from water and effluents. Advances in materials science and membrane manufacturing technology have shaped this trend, together with the increased regulatory pressures as well as an increased demand for drinking water originating from water sources of inferior quality (surface water, other). Moreover, membrane technologies have emerged as a very attractive option, in the production of clean and safe drinking water, due to their significant advantages over the conventional water treatment methods. Specifically Recovery is defined as the ratio of permeate production rate Qp over the feed flow rate Qf. Jw is the permeate water flux, Lp the membrane permeability, AP the applied transmembrane pressure and An the osmotic pressure difference between feed and permeate. From Table 1 it is evident that the selection of a particular membrane type...

Strategies For Enhancing Sustainability Of Urban Water Systems

Operation of existing urban water systems can be enhanced by implementing sustainability strategies. Two types of such strategies were examined rainwater harvesting and use, and sustainable wastewater management. The first strategy contributes to reduced imports of source water into urban areas and reduced runoff from urban areas, the second one promotes pollution prevention and recovery of resources, including reclaimed water, energy, and nutrients. Overall, both groups contribute to more sustainable urban water systems requiring fewer resources to provide the water services required and ensuring a better protection of the environment. Keywords rainwater harvesting, pollution prevention, recovery of energy and nutrients from wastewater, sustainable urban water systems

Water Resources Management

Circa mid-the twentieth century, it was still practical in most countries to design and build dams reservoirs on streams for intended single-purpose uses such as UWSSs, but over the next half-century, it become increasingly necessary, because of increasing growth of population and industry, to design the reservoirs for multipurpose uses (i.e., for all beneficial water uses in the project's service area). But also by year 2000, water resources experts were beginning to realize that continuing further growth was resulting in serious water shortages conflicts between provinces (or states) of individual countries and between different countries. Hence, the problem now facing the world in water shortage regions is how to resolve these conflicts by (1) making much more effective use of the limited water resources, and (2) reaching agreements between countries utilizing the some limited resources on fair allocation of the limited resources. In the DC regions, initial steps are underway on...

Sedimentwater systems

As pointed out by Reuther (1999) in his review on trace metal speciation in aquatic sediments, the concept of chemical speciation has been established as a practical tool during the past 50 years, to assess the behaviour of trace metals in both natural and polluted sediment water systems. A multitude of more or less sophisticated analytical procedures is now available and can be applied in an attempt to determine typical metal species (such as the form of binding between the metal and a solid phase), the relative distribution of the metal among the various, most common, species, and the kinds and kinetics of transformation between different, typical species.

Water Conservation

Water conservation can effect considerable saving of water with resultant reduction in water treatment and pumping costs and wastewater treatment. With water conservation, development of new sources of water and treatment facilities and their costs can be postponed or perhaps made unnecessary, and low-distribution system water pressure situations are less likely. However, the unit cost of water to the consumer may not be reduced it may actually increase because the fixed cost will remain substantially the same. The revenue must still be adjusted to meet the cost of water production and distribution. Water conservation can be accomplished, where needed, by a continuing program of leak detection and repair in the community distribution system and in buildings use of low water-use valves and plumbing fixtures water pressure and flow control in the distribution system and in building services (orifices) Average consumption, 5 gal capita day at well or tap, water carried Water system...

Butanolwater Systems

The n-butanol water mixture represents an opposite extreme to the heptane-water system, in which the solvent phase is remarkably more polar than apolar heptane or weakly polar octanol. Note that butanol is the lowest-molecular-weight alcohol, whose polarity stays just below the level for it to be partially miscible with water methanol, ethanol, and propanol are completely miscible with water. The solubility of butanol in water is 1.1 M and the solubility of water in butanol is 9.4M at room temperature. This relatively high mutual solubility affects not only the molar volumes of the two solvent phases (water and butanol) but also, more critically, the solubility behavior of the solutes in the two equilibrium phases. Westall (1983) determined the Kbw values of benzene and chlorinated benzenes. For benzene (Kow 135), the Kbw value is about one-half the Kow value. For trichlorobenzene (Kow 1050) and tetrachlorobenzene (Kow 4900) with a significantly reduced water solubility, the Kbw...

Drought Stress

Stress is defined an external factor that exerts a disadvantageous influence on the plant. In most, cases stress is measured in relation to growth or to the primary assimilation processes (CO2 and mineral uptake) which are related to overall growth. Under both natural and agricultural conditions, plants are constantly exposed to stress. Some environmental factors (such as air temperature) can become stressful in just a few minutes, whereas others may take days to weeks (soil water) or even months (some mineral nutrients) to become stressful (Taiz and Zeiger 2006). In this section we would focus our discussion on drought stress and role of arbuscular mycorrhiza in alleviating this stress (Table 6.1). Table 6.1 Impacts caused by drought on plants Drought resistant strategies vary with climatic or soil conditions Water stress has several effects on growth. Of particular importance is a specific limitation to leaf expansion or otherwise plants have to complete their life cycles to avoid...

Drinking Water

In summer 2004, the Observer newspaper in the UK incorrectly reported the alarming news that prozac (fluoxetine) had been detected in UK drinking water 56 . Alarming as this headline may sound, there have indeed been reports of the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in water intended for human consumption (Table 3.1.7). Again, occurrence alone may not be a problem since the doses may be well below those required to exert any effect. Potable water treatment (Chapter 4.3) is also important since the presence of any contaminant in source water does not mean that it will be present in potable water supplies. It is therefore the effectiveness of any treatment process, if present, that is key to the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in drinking water.

Octanolwater Systems

Among current studies of the partition effects of nonionic organic compounds in various solvent-water mixtures, the partition coefficients in octanol-water mixtures have received the utmost attention because of the observed correlations between the octanol-water partition coefficients and the partition effects with natural organic substances and biological components. Part of the reasons for the success of n-octanol as a surrogate for natural organic matter and or biological components has to do with the polar-to-nonpolar balance of the molecule through its hydrophilic OH and lipophilic alkyl chain that mimics to some extent the overall polarity of the natural organic matter and of biological materials. Here the term polarity is used to refer in a general sense to the ability of molecules to engage in hydrogen bonding and or polar interactions as opposed to nonspecific dispersion (i.e., induced dipole-induced dipole) interactions. From the solubility-model standpoint, the...

Heptanewater Systems

The n-heptane water mixture offers an extreme but instructive system for examining important differences in the partitioning of polar and nonpolar compounds into a highly nonpolar organic phase. As with the octanol-water system, the molecular-size differences between most solutes and heptane are usually not too large to negate the use of Raoult's law for treating solute partition with heptane. Note here that the mutual solubility of heptane and water is very small at room temperature, the solubility of heptane in water being about 9.5 x 10-5M and that of water in heptane being 5.3 x 10-3M. Thus, Eq. (3.11) can be simplified by treating the molar volumes of water-saturated heptane and heptane-saturated water to be essentially the same as the molar volumes of the respective pure solvents. A further approximation can be made by assuming that the small amount of heptane in water has no significant effect on the solubility of solutes in the water phase. With these simplifications, Eq....

How Might I Be Exposed To Chlorophenols

Most people are exposed to very low levels of chlorophenols in drinking water that has been disinfected with chlorine (chlorinated drinking water). Chlorophenols have been measured in chlorinated drinking water at parts per trillion (ppt) concentrations (that is, the amount weight of chlorophenols per trillion parts volume of water). In lakes, rivers, and streams, chlorophenols were found in less than 1 percent of the water that was tested. Chlorophenols have been measured in city air at concentrations of less than a part per trillion (the amount of chlorophenols volume per trillion parts volume of air).

The Liquid Medium Water And The Water Cycle

Water occurs on Earth in distinct settings that we generally refer to as compartments atmosphere, land, groundwater, rivers, lakes, and oceans. The water cycle is the exchange between these compartments and is a highly dynamic system. Figure 2.1 is a simplified representation of the global water cycle, showing each major compartment with its respective mass of water, water's average residence time in each compartment, and the flux between compartments. Residence time refers to the average amount of time a molecule of water (in this case) spends in the compartment of interest. Of course the largest reservoir of water is the oceans, which are also associated with the longest residence time (40,000 years). Some molecules of water falling on the surface of the oceans are almost immediately volatilized (evaporation) and return to the atmosphere to fall across landmasses. Other molecules are taken deep into the ocean, not to see the light of day for tens of thousands of years. Water that is...

How Can Chlorophenols Affect My Health

Animals that were given food or drinking water containing chlorophenols at high levels developed adverse or negative health effects. The major effects with exposure to high levels of chlorophenols were on the liver and the immune system. Also, the animals that ate or drank chlorophenols did not gain as much weight as the animals that ate food and drank water not containing chlorophenols.

How Can Chlorophenols Affect Children

Given to pregnant female rats in the drinking water have tended to reduce the number of their newborn animals and to decrease the weights of the newborn. In one study animals exposed to chlorophenols showed delayed hardening of some bones. Section 2.6 of this profile contains further details on animal-based developmental effects studies. We do not know whether chlorophenols can cross the placenta or get into breast milk.

How Can Families Reduce The Risk Of Exposure To Chlorophenols

People who do not live near production or waste sites can still be exposed to chlorophenols through other routes. Chlorophenols can be present in drinking water when chlorine is used to disinfect it. The safe drinking water standard for 2-chlorophenol is included in Table 7-1. At low concentrations, chlorophenols give water an unpleasant, medicinal taste.

What Recommendations Has The Federal Government Made To Protect Human Health

The EPA recommends that drinking water concentrations of 2-chlorophenol should not be more than 0.04 part per million (ppm), and concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenol should not be more than 0.02 ppm these are levels that can be tasted. In order for chlorophenols to be lower than levels that can be tasted, the EPA recommends levels of 0.1 part per billion (ppb the amount of chlorophenols per billion parts of water) for monochlorophenols, 0.3 ppb for 2,4-dichlorophenols, and 1 ppb for 2,4,5-trichlorophenol and 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol. More information about regulations and guidelines for chlorophenols can be found in Chapter 7.

Developmental Effects

No significant changes in offspring body or liver weights were observed in rats treated with 2-CP in drinking water at doses up to 50 mg kg day throughout gestation and up to 91 days post partum (Exon and Koller 1981, 1983, 1985). Groups of 6-13 female Sprague-Dawley rats receiving a single dose of 333, 667, or 1,000 mg kg 4-CP on gestational day 11 showed no adverse changes in litter sizes, perinatal loss, pup weight, or litter biomass (Kavlock 1990). The only treatment-related effect was a transient decrease in maternal body weight at 1,000 mg kg. No effect on immune function parameters (antibody production, delayed type hypersensitivity response, phagocytic activity) was noted in 6-week-old rats treated with 2,4-DCP in the drinking water at doses up to 30 mg kg day throughout gestation (Exon and Koller 1985 Exon et al. 1984). Spleen weights were significantly increased at 30 mg kg day, although no histological changes in the spleen were observed.

Children S Susceptibility

No direct information is available regarding the health effects of chlorophenols observed in children. However, health effects observed in adults are also expected to be of potential concern in children. Although no direct information is available on the effects of chlorophenols on the developmental process in humans, studies in animals indicate few developmental effects. No significant changes in offspring body or liver weights were observed in rats treated with 2-CP in drinking water at doses up to 50 mg kg day throughout gestation and up to 91 days post partum (Exon and Koller 1981, 1985). No adverse changes in litter sizes, perinatal loss, pup weight, or litter biomass were observed when female rats received a single dose of 4-CP as high as 1,000 mg kg on gestational day 11 (Kavlock 1990). Oral exposure of pregnant rats to a maternal toxic dose of 750 mg kg day 2,4-DCP for 10 gestational days induced a slight decrease in fetal weight and a statistically significant delayed...

Identification of Data Needs

Blackburn et al. (1986) did not find reproductive effects in male or female rats exposed to 2,4,6-TCP by gavage at doses that caused other systemic effects (e.g., decreased body weight gain). There is limited evidence that 2-CP, 2,4-DCP, and 2,4,6-TCP may reduce litter sizes when administered to rats in drinking water (Exon and Koller 1985). This effect was significant only at p

Existing Environmental Policy

The goals proposed in the fifth EAP, along with the 1998 Treaty of Amsterdam, which encouraged the integration of the environment into all policy areas, has led to a horizontal approach to environmental regulation. This approach takes into account all the causes of pollution and environmental problems industry, energy, tourism, transport, agriculture, and so on. The main areas of environmental concern, however, remain the same, and there is an abundance of policy in the areas of waste management, noise pollution, water pollution, air pollution, nature conservation, and natural and technological hazards (Europa, 2003a, p. 2). Water Legislation. In the area of water policy, a number of directives have been introduced to address water issues relating to drinking, bathing and other fresh waters, as well as shellfish cultures. A community water policy and a measure that deals with urban wastewater have also been created. The EU has also participated in international conventions concerned...

Environmental Distribution

As noted above, lead is one of the most commonly found heavy metals although it is at part per million and part per billion levels. The U.S. EPA requires action when the level of lead in drinking water reaches 15ppb, but prefers a concentration of zero, recognizing that almost any level of lead can be harmful to infants. Inhalation and ingestion of lead-contaminated paint chips are a common source of lead to infants, and they have received much public attention in recent years. In the past, however, widespread combustion of leaded gasoline was the major source of lead to all living organisms.

Exposures Of Children

There are no known unique exposure pathways for children to chlorophenols. However, 4-CP has been used at home as disinfectant, and 2,4-DCP has been used for mothproofing and as a miticide (WHO 1989), while the higher chlorophenols have been used as germicides, algicides, and fungicides. Thus, children may be exposed via accidental ingestion. Because children like to play outdoors and put fingers in their mouths, they may also be exposed via incidental ingestion and dermal contact of contaminated soil. The most likely way that children can be exposed is via drinking water that has been disinfected with chlorine. Exposure to 2,4-DCP through contaminated food may result from the production of 2,4-DCP via degradation of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid applied to food crops or via

Unregulated Contaminants

These contaminants which, at the time of publication, are not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulation (NPDWR), are known or anticipated to occur in public water systems, and they may require regulations under SDWA. For more information check out the list, or visit the Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) website. Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) Website

Putting It All Together Margin Of Error Uncertainty Of The Entire Estimation Process

Studies indicate that the long-term intake of bromoform in drinking water can cause cancer in animals and humans. The slope factor for bromoform is 7.9 x 10-3 (mg kg day)-1. Calculate the DWEL that would result in a one-in-a-million risk of developing cancer over a 70-year time span. 5. Contaminated drinking water near a farm contains the following concentrations of pesticide products Aldrin at 0.0025mg L, Dieldrin at 0.0003mg L, and Endrin at 0.0007mg L. Calculate the cumulative hazard quotient for a local 70.0-kg person that drinks 2.0L day of the water. The RfD values in mg kg day at 3 x 10-5 for Aldrin, 5 x 10-5 for Dieldrin, and 3 x 10-4 for Endrin. 14. MTBE, an additive in gasoline, has recently been in the media as a drinking water contaminant due to leaking gasoline storage tanks. Calculate the cancer risk from drinking water that has an MTBE concentration of 40.0ppb (considered safe according to the EPA website). Assume that a 70-kg adult drinks 2.0L day for 70 years....

What Are Chlorophenols

Chlorophenols with at least two chlorines either have been used directly as pesticides or converted into pesticides. Also, chlorophenols, especially 4-chlorophenol, have been used as antiseptics. In addition to being produced commercially, small amounts of some chlorophenols, especially the mono- and dichlorophenols, may be produced when waste water or drinking water is disinfected with chlorine, if certain contaminants are present in the raw water. They are also produced during the bleaching of wood pulp with chlorine when paper is being produced. More information on the physical and chemical properties and on the production and use of chlorophenols is found in Chapters 3 and 4.

The Determination Of The Biochemical Oxygen Demand Bod Of Sewage Influent Bod5 Andor Bod20

Our standard of living in the United States is a direct result of having adequate water and wastewater treatment, which are distinguishing features of developed countries. As early as 1700 B.C.E., people began to obtain the luxury of running water and then to deal with the disposal of associated wastes. Though there is evidence of plumbing and sewage systems at many age-old sites, including the cloaca maxiumn, or great sewer, of the ancient Roman empire, the common use of sewer and plumbing systems did not become widespread until modern times. Along with providing drinking water and disposing of sewage comes the challenge of preventing the rapid spread of disease within populations that utilize a common water source and treatment facilities.

Suggested Papers For Class Discussion

Research the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) on the Internet. Write a one-page summary of the act with respect to groundwater, priority pollutants, and maximum contaminant levels. 11. Summarize the three ways of estimating determining dispersion in a ground-water system.

Immunological and Lymphoreticular Effects

Rats fed 50 mg kg day 2-CP for up to 16 weeks and mice fed 69 mg kg day 2-CP for 14 days showed no changes in humoral or cell-mediated immunological assays (Borzelleca et al. 1985a Exon and Koller 1983, 1985). Indices assessed in the Exon and Koller (1983, 1985) studies include antibody production, delayed type hypersensitivity, and phagocytic activity of peritoneal exudate cells. Female mice exposed to 69 mg kg day for 14 days had statistically significant decreases in spleen weight but no gross abnormalities in spleen morphology (Borzelleca et al. 1985a). Spleen and thymus weights were not significantly affected in rats that received 50 mg 2,4-DCP kg day in drinking water for 16 weeks (Exon and Koller 1983, 1985). Perinatal exposure of young rats to 2-CP at doses up to 50 mg kg day produced no treatment-related effects on humoral or cell-mediated immunity, thymus weights, or spleen weights (Exon and Koller 1983, 1985). Histopathological examination of lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus...

List Of Contaminants And Their Mcls Epa 816F02013 July 2002

Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water HPC has no health effects it is an analytic method used to measure the variety of bacteria that are common in water. The lower the concentration of bacteria in drinking water, the better maintained the water system is. By-product of drinking water disinfection By-product of drinking water disinfection By-product of drinking water disinfection By-product of drinking water disinfection Ingestion of Water Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Ingestion of Water Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water 1 Definitions Maximum contaminant level (MCL) the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to MCLGs as feasible using the best available treatment technology and taking cost into consideration. MCLs are enforceable standards. Maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG) the level of a...

Atsdr Minimal Risk Levels And Worksheets

Groups of 10 female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 2,4-DCP (99 pure) in the drinking water at 0, 3, 30, or 300 ppm from weaning through breeding at 90 days, parturition, and weaning of pups. Ten randomly selected offspring groups were then continued on the same treatment regimen as the dams for an additional 10 weeks. IRIS (1994) indicates that doses were calculated by the authors, but the doses are not presented in the papers. To be consistent with IRIS, a 10 drinking water intake factor was used so that estimated 2,4-DCP intakes were 0, 0.3, 3, and 30 mg kg day, at 0, 3, 30, and 300 ppm, respectively.

Estimated 105 Upper Bound Human Cancer Risk 106 Levels for 246TCP

Groups of 12 male and 12 female mice, administered once daily by gavage with up to 69 mg kg day 2-CP or up to 638 mg kg day 2,4-DCP for 14 days, showed no adverse effects on standard hematological parameters, including total and differential white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and coagulation measures relative to unexposed controls (Borzelleca et al. 1985a). However, when groups of 20 male and 20 female mice were dosed with up to 383 mg kg day of 2,4-DCP (male), and 49 mg kg day (female) in drinking water for 90 days, the number of white blood cells was increased in the high-dose males (Borzelleca et al. 1985c). No changes in red or white blood cell counts were noted in mice exposed to 2,4-DCP at doses up to 230 mg kg day for 6 months (Kobayashi et al. 1972). After 13 weeks of prenatal exposure and up to 15 weeks of postnatal exposure to 2-CP in drinking water, rat weanlings showed no adverse effects on red cell count, hematocrit, mean corpuscular...

Remediation Of Polluted Streams Systems

We have adequate technologies in place to respond to a pollution spill, the pollution has moved to another section of the stream. Often, the best we can do is predict the migration of pollution with the water column, warn residents to stay out of the water, and stop the intake of water into their drinking water facilities when the pollution is present in their section of the stream. Meanwhile, the ultimate destination or fate of the pollution is the lake or estuary system receiving the water from the stream. This presents a common problem for estuary systems They receive all of the point and non-point pollution in a watershed. When you consider a large stream, the accumulated pollution can be huge. For example, take the Mississippi River in the United States. It has origins starting far to the north of its Louisiana delta, and it passes through many industrialized and agricultural areas as it flows south. Along the way it accumulates industrial pollutants and nutrients from sewage...

Neurological Effects

Mice treated with 2,4-DCP in the diet at 5,200 mg kg day for 14 days were lethargic and 1 out of 5 males died (NTP 1989). Hunched posture was observed in rats treated with 2,4-DCP in the diet at 2,000 mg kg day for 13 weeks (NTP 1989) with no histopathological changes in the brain, sciatic nerve, or spinal cord. In mice treated with 2,4-DCP in the diet at doses up to 2,600 mg kg day for 13 weeks, no histopathological changes were observed in the brain, sciatic nerve, or spinal cord (NTP 1989). No effect on brain weight was observed in mice treated with 2,4-DCP in the drinking water at doses up to 491 mg kg day (Borzelleca et al. 1985a). No clinical signs of neurological effects were reported in rats or mice fed doses up to 440 mg kg day for rats and 1,300 mg kg day for mice, and histopathologic examination of the brains of these animals did not reveal any effects (NTP 1989).

Reproductive Effects

A teratogenicity study in which pregnant rats were treated with 2,4-DCP by gavage on gestation days 6-15 at doses that caused maternal deaths and decreased body weight gain showed neither postimplantation loss nor changes in the numbers of resorptions and viable fetuses (Rodwell et al. 1989). No reproductive organ pathology was observed in rats or mice of either sex fed up to 2,000 or 2,600 mg kg day 2,4-DCP, respectively, for 13 weeks (NTP 1989). Reproductive organ pathology was also not observed in male rats fed 440 and female rats fed 250 mg kg day 2,4-DCP and male mice fed 1,300 and female mice fed 8,210 mg kg day 2,4-DCP for 2 years (NTP 1989). Sperm from male mice fed 500 mg kg day 2,4-DCP for 90 days in drinking water were not impaired in their ability to fertilize ova (Seyler et al. 1984). Using identical experimental protocols, investigators have studied the reproductive effects of 2-CP, 2,4-DCP, and 2,4,6-TCP in Sprague-Dawley female rats (Exon and Koller 1985). Groups of...

Genotoxic Effects

In ICR mice, daily gavage administration of 69 mg kg day 2-CP or 638 mg kg day 2,4-DCP in corn oil for 14 days did not increase sister chromatid exchange (SCE) rates in testicular or bone marrow cells (Borzelleca et al. 1985a). Further details were not provided. Ninety-day exposure of mice to 2,4-DCP in drinking water at doses up to 500 mg kg day also had no effect on SCE in bone marrow and testicular cells (Borzelleca et al. 1985a). A single gavage dose of 2,4,5-TCP (164 mg kg), 2,4,6-TCP (164 mg kg), or 2,3,4,6-TeCP (28 or 193 mg kg) given to rats did not damage deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as measured by the fraction of DNA eluted from white blood cells or livers (Kitchin and Brown 1988).


In the one oral carcinogenicity study located, groups of Sprague-Dawley rats received prenatal, postnatal, or both pre- and postnatal exposure to 2-CP (Exon and Koller 1985). The exposure concentrations were 0, 5, 50, and 500 ppm in drinking water (0, 0.5, 5, 50 mg kg day). Under all exposure conditions, 2-CP administration had no effect on the incidence, latency, or types of tumors relative to the untreated controls. Additional groups of gravid dams received ethylurea and nitrite, precursors of the carcinogenic initiator ethylnitrosourea (ENU), on gestation days 14 and 21. No consistent effects on either tumor incidence or latency occurred in rats treated with ENU and then treated either prenatally or postnatally with 2-CP. The groups of males receiving ENU and both prenatal and postnatal 2-CP had increased tumor incidence and decreased tumor latency relative to a control group receiving ENU only. The investigators indicate that the combined changes were marginally statistically...

Oral Exposure

Chlorophenols do not appear to accumulate in animals following oral exposure. For example, liver 2-CP concentrations were 2.2, 3.2, and 0.8 ppm, and kidney 2-CP concentrations were 2.6, 2.4, and 2.2 ppm in female rats exposed to 2-CP in the drinking water for 16 weeks at 5, 50, and 500 ppm, respectively (Exon and Koller 1982). The investigators did not provide an explanation for the low value (0.8 ppm) found in the livers of rats receiving the high dose and did not indicate whether these values were wet or dry weight concentrations. Radioactivity was not recovered in the liver, lung, and subcutaneous fat of rats given three daily gavage doses of radiolabelled 2,4,6-TCP (Korte et al. 1978) or in unspecified tissues of rats given radiolabelled 2,4,6-TCP by gavage for 15 days (Bahig et al. 1981).


Chlorophenols are used as intermediates in the production of dyes and chlorinated pesticides. Because of its biocidal properties, 4-CP is also used as a dental antiseptic. Runoff from pesticide degradation, contaminated food intake, and the chlorination of both drinking water and waste water are the environmental sources of human exposure to chlorophenols. A chlorophenol-containing waste site may result in groundwater contamination with subsequent introduction into the drinking water supplies. Dermal exposure can occur in occupational settings. Much lower levels of dermal exposure can occur through showering and bathing with water containing chlorophenols. In addition, the environmental dechlorination of the higher chlorophenols can result in exposure to the lower chlorophenols.

Existing Studies

Humans are potentially exposed to chlorophenols occupationally, through municipal solid waste combustion, and as a result of the disinfection of drinking water. The chlorophenol by-products of manufacturing activities may be the greatest single source of concern at NPL hazardous waste sites. Workers in phenoxy pesticide production, wood preservation, dye manufacturing, and alcohol denaturation may be at some risk from chlorophenol exposure. Exposure potential in most of these industries is greater for the higher chlorinated phenols, which, based on the results of animal studies, are more toxic than the dichlorophenols and the monochlorophenols (Borzelleca et al. 1985a). Results of human studies involving exposure to higher chlorophenols suggest that occupational dermal exposure is a more significant concern than inhalation exposure (Kleinman et al. 1986). Except for the single death following dermal 2,4-DCP exposure (Kintz et al. 1992) no health effects data for humans exposed...

The Concept Of Risk

Another example of a popular perception of unknown risk can be seen in the question of drinking water treatment. Many citizens are becoming aware that the chlorination of our drinking water can result in the formation of cancer-causing agents, such as trihalomethanes (THMs). Some residents using treated drinking water purchase relatively costly water filters or boil their drinking water prior to use to remove the THMs. But when you look at the associated risk of drinking chlorinated water (as we will do in this chapter), you can clearly see that drinking chlorinated water is far safer than driving a car, working in the home, or even eating four tablespoons of peanut butter (refer to Table 10.1). But again, these are common practices we routinely accept often, the main difference in terms of our risk perception is the distinction between a deliberate decision and an imposed situation. One-in-a-million chance of death per year One-in-a-million chance of death per life Drinking water...

Introduction And Definitions

Coagulation is the central and most important process in conventional treatment to produce potable water. Chemical coagulants are also used for treatment of wastewaters for removal of phosphorus, enhancement of primary or secondary clarification, or improvements in tertiary treatments such as rapid filtration or membrane filtration. Coagulants are also used for aggregation of hemi-cellulose and cellulose particles into filterable floes during production of paper.

Phenomenological Conceptual Models and Mathematical Models

The ultimate goal of a hydrochemical study is the construction of a conceptual model describing the water system in three spatial dimensions with its evolution in time. To achieve this goal a large number of observations and measurements are required to find the site-specific setups. Thus, at the basic stage of investigation a phenomenological approach is required. The phenomenological conceptual model is mainly qualitative, recognizing recharge areas topographic relief terminal bases of drainage modes of water uptake lithological compositions geological structures the number and nature of aquifers and aquicludes karstic features and other

Regulations and Phthalate Esters

Because of their very large production volumes, phthalate esters are subject to considerable regulatory scrutiny world-wide. Regulations on phthalate esters cover all aspects of their production, transportation, use, and disposal. Phthalates are regulated under the Clean Water Act, so that at certain manufacturing facilities in the US, wastewater to be treated in municipal sewage treatment plants may be required to undergo pretreatment prior to leaving the facility (Pretreat-ment Standards). When they become waste products, certain phthalates are subject to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. Drinking water standards have been set under the Safe Drinking Water Act for several DEHP. Releases to the environment of several phthalate esters are required to be publicly reported in the US, Canada, and Japan.

Defining Water Quality

In most parts of the world, the days are long gone when rivers, lakes, springs, and wells from which one can directly drink, could readily meet almost all needs for high quality water. Where such water remains mostly in high mountain regions untouched by mining, grazing, or industrial fallout it must be protected by strict regulations. In the U.S., many states seek to preserve high quality waters with antidegradation policies. But most of the water that is used for drinking water supplies, irrigation, and industry, not to mention supplying a supporting habitat for natural flora and fauna, is much-reused water that often needs treatment to become acceptable. In this context, a practical evaluation of water quality depends on how the water is used, as well as its chemical makeup. The quality of water in a stream might be considered good if the water is used for irrigation but poor if it is used as a drinking water supply. To determine water quality, one must first identify the ways in...

Examples Of Reconstruction And Extension Of Group Water Supply Systems In The Czech Republic

The paper provides two examples of extension and reconstruction of group water supply network in The Czech Republic. Both projects represent solution to problems with provision of potable water in adequate quantity and quality. The first project aimed to construct new water infrastructure and reconstruct existing infrastructure within the Dyje river basin (namely Breclavsko region). Within the project, extension of the existing main water supply network was implemented due to a bad quality of local water resources. The second project proposed reconstruction of the existing water main supply system due to a poor raw water quality of the source, obsolete treatment technology and unsatisfactory technical condition of the main water supply system in the Trebicsko region.

Periodically Repeated Hydrochemical Measurements Time Series

This information may be obtained by conducting periodically repeated measurements in selected wells and springs (section 18.2). The costs of repeated measurements are small in comparison to drilling, and they provide information not otherwise available, significantly increasing the understanding of the water system in terms needed for its management.

Plant Resistance to Toxins 31 Salts

Accumulation of proline and glycinebetaine plays a crucial role in osmoregulation and osmotolerance in plants (Rhodes and Hanson 1993 Hasegawa et al. 2000). They also protect membranes and proteins against the destabilizing effects of abiotic stresses such as salt stress and water stress. In addition, their ability to scavenge free radicals generated under stress conditions renders them as an important marker of salt tolerance (Kavi Kishore et al. 2005 Ashraf and Foolad 2007).

Metabolomics approach to the identification of emerging unknown contaminants

Another sophisticated means of identification of unknown contaminants is based on a metabolomics-like approach. Again the sample should be extracted and purified in such a way to maintain all relevant contaminant classes of interest. Next the sample, still being a highly complex mixture, is analysed by a highresolution chromatographic technique such as ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), GC or even comprehensive GC x GC, combined with a sensitive full-scan MS technique such as TOF, ion trap or FT Orbitrap. The data from the sample replicates are aligned in the retention time domain and compared with the data from a set of reference sample replicates. Finally uni- or multi-variate statistics are applied in order to assess the significant differences between the suspect sample and the regular reference situation. By using appropriate data analysis software contaminants could be retrieved automatically from an oily preparation, drinking water and grass samples 52 . Successful...

Protozoa and Helminths Examination

The complex procedure to sample, collect, prepare, and positively identify the protozoan cysts of Giardia lamblia is impractical for the routine control of water treatment. Because of this, the EPA requires complete treatment of surface waters unless the absence of giardia cysts can be demonstrated and assured by other acceptable means. Sampling for giardia cysts usually involves the filtration of about 500 gal of the water through a 1-fm-pore-size cartridge filter at a rate of about 1 gal min. The filter extract and sediment collected are concentrated, slides are prepared, and the giardia cyst identified microscopically. Giardia cysts cannot be cultured. Ongerth42 developed a procedure using a 5-fm-pore-size filter and a 10-gal sample that was reported to be efficient in recovering giardia cysts. Reservoir retention of 30 to 200 days did not reduce cyst concentration. It should be noted that whereas the giardia cyst is about 10 to 15 fm in size, the cryptosporidium oocyst is about 3...

Application Areas Electrochemical Technology Water Processing

Potable water supply treatment Electrochemical generation of halogens and halogen acids via concentrated salt solution are injected into electrode reaction chambers. Salting an entire body of water to be treated is thus avoided. This method is particularly suited to large bodies of water and in evaporative cooling water systems, which require frequent blow-down .

Protection of the Water Environment

The regulation or control of dangerous chemicals or substances to the environment, particularly to water, from industrial plants or STW has been implemented by various pieces of legislation derived from the Dangerous Substances Directive (76 464 EEC)1 and Daughter Directives, The Environmental Protection Act (EPA)19902 and the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive (96 61 EEC)3. More recently, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) has been introduced to regulate the quality of all water resources in the European Union (EU). Broader thinking to address European water policy was addressed in 1988 at the Frankfurt Ministerial seminar on water which resulted in a series of directives after the 1976 Dangerous Substances Directive to fill gaps identified in the existing regulations. This resulted in the introduction of the Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive,6 the Nitrates Directive in 1991,7 a Directive for IPPC8 in 1996 and a new Drinking Water Directive in 1998.9 The...

Physical Examinations

Taste The taste of water should not be objectionable otherwise, the consumer will resort to other sources of water that might not be of satisfactory sanitary quality. Algae, decomposing organic matter, dissolved gases, high concentrations of sulfates, chlorides, and iron, or industrial wastes may cause tastes and odors. Bone and fish oil and petroleum products such as kerosene and gasoline are particularly objectionable. Phenols in concentrations of 0.2 ppb in combination with chlorine will impart a phenolic or medicinal taste to drinking water. The taste test, like the odor test, is very subjective and may be dangerous to laboratory personnel. As in odor control, emphasis should be placed on the removal of potential causes of taste problems. See discussions of causes and methods to remove or reduce tastes and odors, later in this chapter. Temperature The water temperature should preferably be less than 60 F (16 C). Groundwaters and surface waters from mountainous areas are generally...

Quantitative Analytical Methods

LC has become an essential technique for the determination of polar and thermal labile organic contaminants. Derivatization is not required and low LODs are achieved (in the low ng L level) in aqueous samples, including seawater, surface water, wastewater, groundwater and drinking water. LC-tandem MS is increasingly being used with the sake of enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. Certain drawbacks associated to LC-MS, such as matrix effects, are being faced, for instance, through the use of 13C-labeled 30 and deuterated internal standards. Groundwater, STP effluents, surface, drinking water Drinking water, Sea

Conventional Chemical Risk Management Policies

The 1970s changed all of this as the emergence of the new environmental movement spurred national governments to enact sweeping new chemical pollution, waste, and product laws. The U.S. Congress enacted the Clean Air Act, the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Consumer Product Safety Act, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in a brief six-year period in the early 1970s. Similar laws were passed in Japan and many European countries during this same period. Dealing with chemical production wastes and pollutants and dangerous chemical products, all of these laws had an immediate effect on the chemical industry (see Desai, 2002, for brief case studies from different industrialized countries).

How Might I Be Exposed To Cdfs

CDFs are found at very low levels in the environment of industrial countries and at even lower levels in nonindustrial countries. People are exposed to very small levels of CDFs by breathing air, drinking water, and eating food, but most human exposure comes from food containing CDFs. The levels of CDFs in air are usually higher in city and suburb areas than in rural areas. The concentration of CDFs in city and suburb areas ranges from less than one femtogram (fg) (one quadrillionth of a gram, that is 1 1000,000,000,000,000th of a gram) to a few picograms (pg) in a cubic meter (m ) of air. The levels in rural air are usually so low that measurements are not possible. The levels of CDFs in most drinking waters are also below the level that can be measured. CDFs were found in drinking water of one of the 20 water supplies in New York State at a concentration of 3.4 parts of CDF in a quadrillion part of water. CDFs are not found in soils that have not been polluted. CDFs have been...

Synthetic Musks in Surface Water

The treated waste water leaving the municipal sewage plants seems to be the main source of synthetic musk contamination in the aquatic environment. The highest concentrations in river systems are often those analyzed downstream the tributaries of such plants. The synthetic musk levels diminish as the dilution rate increases with the distance from the source. This is the uncontested result of longitudinal analyses of the Rivers Ruhr 4,8 and Tama 32 . Thus, the basic load of synthetic musks in waters depends essentially upon its waste water share, which may be up to 90 , as found for example of the small brook Wuhle in Berlin, Germany 17 . Synthetic musk fragrances, especially HHCB and AHTN, therefore seem to be suited as organic indicators for the load of municipal sewage in water systems 21 .

Student Comments and Suggestions

Experiment 21 (Determination of Alkalinity of Natural Waters) in Environmental Laboratory Exercises for Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Wiley-Interscience New York, 2004. Mihok, M. Keiser, J. T. Bortiatynski, J. M. Mallouk, T. E. Experiment 2 (Iron and Alkalinity Determinations) in An Environmentally-Focused General Chemistry Laboratory , J. Chem. Educ. 2006,83,250. FebACS ACSSub ACSSupp JCE2006p0250W.pdf University of Wisconsin-Stout, Chemistry Department. Experiment 8 (Acidity and Alkalinity of Drinking Water) in Environmental Chemistry Lab Manual. Laboratory and Lecture Deconstrations. http faculty ondrusm ondrusm manual index.html

Flow Velocity and Groundwater

The term groundwater age sounds simple as well the time that has passed since a water parcel was recharged into the saturated water system. Or, in terms of travel time, the time that has passed since the water entered the ground until it reaches the point at which it is observed, for example, at a spring or a well. In a simplistic way one could compute the age of water (t) in Darcy's experiment by dividing the length of the flow path (A ) by the measured low velocity (V)

How Can Cdfs Enter And Leave My Body

If you breathe air that contains CDFs, they can enter your body through your lungs and pass into the bloodstream, but we do not know how fast this occurs or how much of the CDFs will pass into the bloodstream. If you swallow food, water, or soil contaminated with CDFs, most of the CDFs will probably enter your body and pass from the stomach into the bloodstream, but we do not know how fast this occurs. If you touch soil containing CDFs, which might occur at a hazardous waste site, some of the CDFs will pass through your skin into the bloodstream, but we do not know how fast this occurs. Most commonly, CDFs enter your body when you eat food contaminated with CDFs, in particular fish and fish products, meat and meat products, and milk and milk products containing CDFs. Exposure from drinking water is less than that from food. For people living around waste sites and for people who work with or around other chemicals that produce CDFs when heated, skin contact with contaminated soil or...

Advanced Nanostructured Surfaces for the Control of Biofouling Cell Adhesions to Three Dimensional Nanostructures

Abstract In marine environments or industrial water systems, microorganisms are likely to adhere onto surfaces and form biofilms. Such biofouling creates significant adverse effects, e.g., increases flow friction by roughening surfaces. Previous studies demonstrated the effectiveness of surface microstructures on the prevention of biofouling, which is also closely associated with the surface energy and wettability. Unfortunately, the study of the anti-biofouling property of the micro- and nanostructured surfaces with regulated surface wettability is underperformed at present. In this paper, we report on the bio-adhesions of various cell types on nanoengineered surfaces with dense-array nanostructures whose physical and chemical properties are systematically controlled for the prevention of biofouling. Two nanopatterns (pillar and grating) with varying three-dimensionalities (e.g., structural heights are varied from 50 to 500 nm while the pattern periodicity is fixed at 230 nm) are...

Household Treatment Units Pointof Use and Pointof Entry

On-site polluted water supply safe for drinking without regard to the type, amount, or cause of pollution. This is hazardous. Instead, every effort should first be made to identify the pollutant and remove the source. This failing, every effort should be made to obtain water from a public water system. As a last resort, a household treatment unit or bottled water may have to be used. But the treatment units do not remove all microbiological, chemical, and physical pollutants. Careful selection of the proper treatment unit, which will resolve the particular pollution problem, in addition to cost, required maintenance and operation control, must be considered. Ultraviolet light radiation and chlorination units are not considered satisfactory for the purification of surface-water supplies such as from ponds, lakes, and streams, which usually vary widely in physical, chemical, and microbiological quality, or for well or spring supplies, which may contain turbidity, color, iron, or organic...

How Might I Be Exposed To Hccpd

HCCPD is not commonly found in surface water. In one survey, it was found in less than 0.1 of 854 water samples from various sources. The median concentration of HCCPD was less than 10 ppb in water. HCCPD in not often found in drinking water, so exposure by this route is unlikely. However, it may be formed during chlorination of water containing humic acid. It is highly unlikely that you will be exposed to HCCPD in the foods you eat, although you could be exposed to very small amounts if you catch and eat fish that lived in HCCPD-contaminated water. There is no information available to tell us what happens to HCCPD once it enters the human body. Based on studies in animals, if you are exposed to HCCPD through food or drinking water, most of the HCCPD you eat or drink will stay bound to the food or water and only a small amount will enter your bloodstream. Thereafter, most of the HCCPD (64-80 ) will leave your body in your feces and the rest will leave in your urine.

Effect of Hydraulic Barriers in the Through Flow and Stagnation Zones

The through-flow zone has so far been described in a simplified mode, assuming all the hosting rocks are homogeneously permeable. Deviations from the simplified L-shape of the flow path are caused by the presence of hydraulic barriers, such as clay and shale, that may in certain places block the downflow and create local perched water systems and springs (Fig. 2.16) or cause steps in the path of the lateral flow zone. But the overall L-shape is generally preserved, as the water of perched systems finds pathways to resume the vertical downflow direction.

Magnitude of the Problem

Although perchlorate contamination of groundwater was discovered in wells at California SuperfUnd sites in 1985, nationwide perchlorate contamination of water sources was not recognized until 1997 (NRC, 2005). Based on sampling conducted by the USEPA, as of 2004, over 11 million people in the United States had perchlorate in their public drinking water supplies at concentrations of 4 g L or higher. In addition, as of September 2004, environmental releases of perchlorate have been confirmed in 35 states (NRC, 2005). More specifically, as of late 2004, 361 out of approximately 6,800 public drinking water sources in California have tested positive for perchlorate. In addition, the Lower Colorado River, which supplies drinking water to about 15 million people, contains measurable concentrations of perchlorate at certain times of the year (Hatzinger, 2005). Elevated perchlorate concentrations have been found in monitoring wells associated with Superfund sites and groundwater and surface...

Amphoteric Hydroxides

The amphoteric property of aluminum hydroxide is a factor limiting its use as a coagulant in water purification and industrial waste treatment. The amphoteric properties of zinc and chromium hydroxides are important considerations in treating industrial wastes containing Zn2+ and Cr3 1 .

Carbon Nanotubes in Environmental Monitoring and Wastewater Treatment

With the rapid development and economical growth in nations across the globe, the associated environmental pollution issues are becoming more serious and receiving much attention in seeking solutions to overcome the issues. Pollution by means of air, water, and soil has resulted in the environmental degradation of air quality, water quality, and soil composition, in addition to the adverse effects to the ecosystem. The effect of pollutants on the environment is very complex as undesirable transfers occur continually among different environmental sections. Pollutants that are released to the air may end up in soils or water, which may be washed off by rain into nearby natural water bodies and consequently, jeopardize our drinking water and food supply. Humans are often exposed to the myriad adverse health effects caused by pollutants toxicity, mainly through the ingestion of contaminated food and drinking water, as well as the inhalation of ambient air with high concentrations of...

Metal Contaminated Soil

After estimation from 1995, a total amount of over 700 million kg of metals is being dumped in mine tailings worldwide annually (Warhurst 2002). Depending on the metal (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), the volume of tailing material ranges from 10,000 to 600,000 metric tons (ib.), illustrating the negative consequences of ore processing. When large volumes of geogenic substrate are excavated, waste rock material is often still rich in metals after the extraction process. The reallocated geogenic material is prone to weathering and source of continuous metal release. Usually, the leached residues are dumped onto waste piles. Under irrigated and aerobic conditions, acid mine drainage ensues, often seen as seepage effluent with high-metal load and low pH. This contamination of the water path (often running through arable land) leads to soils with an increasing amount of metal and, subsequently, to a slow and continuous toxification of plants and animals, thus allowing for introduction in food...

How Can In Situ Bioremediation Help Solve The Perchlorate Problem

The reasons for the rapid development and application of in situ bioremediation for perchlorate include the advantages of the technology itself, as well as the deficiencies of other available treatment technologies. Briefly, available technologies have proven to be relatively expensive, and generally require extraction of the groundwater or treatment at a point of exposure (e.g., at a wellhead). However, in situ bioremediation can provide a cost-effective method to treat contamination before it spreads to drinking water wells or other receptors, and it can greatly decrease the life-cycle costs for managing a perchlorate contaminated site. The following sections briefly describe the available technologies, and then summarize the rationale for using in situ bioremediation.

The Traditional Model of UShape Flow Paths

Fig. 2.18 A cross-section of a much-quoted model (following Freeze and Cherry, 1979, who cited Hubbert, 1940). The surface is described as undulating in a mode that can be expressed by a simple mathematical equation, and the water table is assumed to follow topography in a fixed mode. The stippled section describes a water system from a low-order divide to a nearby low-order valley the thick lines mark there impermeable planes that are an intrinsic part of the U-shape flow paths model, enlarged in Fig. 2.19. The cross-section emphasizes topographic undulations and disregards the location of the terminal base of drainage and the location of the main water divide. Fig. 2.18 A cross-section of a much-quoted model (following Freeze and Cherry, 1979, who cited Hubbert, 1940). The surface is described as undulating in a mode that can be expressed by a simple mathematical equation, and the water table is assumed to follow topography in a fixed mode. The stippled section describes a water...

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