Weakened Immune Systems Ebook

The Immunity Crisis in America

Have you ever wondered WHY you get sick from different things, sometimes seemingly for no reason? Haven't you ever wished that you could find some way to stop yourself from getting sick and stay healthy all the time? Well, that might be more possible than you thought at first! Your immune system is an odd system, that many scientists are still struggling to understand. However, there have been some amazing breakthroughs! Once you get access to this detailed and helpful book, you will be able to find REAL and Applicable ways to improve your immune system and keep yourself from getting sick all of the time. This book teaches you everything that you never learned about your immune system Start learning what you can Really do to improve your immune system's health and keep your body healthier for longer! It's not hard at all Get started today! Read more here...

Immunity Crisis Summary


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Author: Nicholas St Jon
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Peptide and protein growth promoters

The use of growth promoters in food producing animals has been banned in many countries since 1988 31 . Thanks to harmonization efforts most of the EU member states are capable of detecting steroids and b-agonists at the required level, although large differences in specific analyte coverage still exist. Hormone criminality is believed to be linked with sports doping and to occur via international networks. As in sports doping it can be predicted that the abuse will shift from classical growth promoters such as steroids and b-agonists to peptides and proteins when the veterinary control of the former becomes more effective. Bovine and porcine somatotropin (bST and pST), the equivalents of human growth hormone, are 22 kDa proteins and commercially available as recombinant preparations. They are important endocrine factors influencing metabolic and somatogenic processes including growth, immune function, reproduction and lactation. Their species specificity implies low toxicity in...

Environmental health science for the next century

This risk management debate has often been conducted using political, economic, or social rhetoric. Yet the key determinant is the availability of valid and robust scientific methodology pertinent to understanding the etiology of disease. This methodology must first enable the necessary definition and surveillance of diseases caused by environmental factors. Then, it must be able to determine causes. Fortunately, the recent rapid advances in molecular biology and in other biologically relevant technologies provide the necessary tools to develop indicators of cause and effect relationships by starting first with the disease and working backward to the cause. Whether by fingerprinting specific patterns of DNA codons altered by a chemical carcinogen or by understanding the subtle alterations in the immune system underlying pulmonary asthma, our new biology provides an opportunity to understand causation.

How Can Cdfs Affect My Health

Many of the same health effects that occurred in the people accidentally exposed also occurred in experimental or laboratory animals that ate CDFs. Animals fed CDFs also had severe body weight loss, and their stomachs, livers, kidneys, and immune systems were seriously injured. Some fed high doses died. CDFs also caused birth defects and testicular damage in animals, but we do not know if CDFs make males or females infertile. Most of the effects in animals occurred after they ate large amounts of CDFs for short periods or smaller amounts of CDFs for several weeks or months. Nothing is known about the possible health effects in animals from eating CDFs over a lifetime. Only one study tested animals exposed to CDFs by skin contact. The health effects were similar to those that occurred in animals that ate CDFs. We do not know the possible health effects in animals of breathing in CDFs. The amounts of CDFs that caused health effects in animals were far greater than the levels normally...

How Can Chlorophenols Affect My Health

Animals that were given food or drinking water containing chlorophenols at high levels developed adverse or negative health effects. The major effects with exposure to high levels of chlorophenols were on the liver and the immune system. Also, the animals that ate or drank chlorophenols did not gain as much weight as the animals that ate food and drank water not containing chlorophenols.

Inhalation Exposure 2211 Death

Survival of male and female rats and male mice chronically exposed to 0.01-0.2 ppm HCCPD was similar to that for controls. Survival was diminished in female mice exposed to 0.2 ppm, but not at lower concentrations (NTP 1994). Ovarian inflammation resulting from infection appeared to be the cause of premature deaths in females. The authors suggest that this may be due to an adverse effect of HCCPD on immune function.

Developmental Effects

No effect on immune function parameters (antibody production, delayed type hypersensitivity response, phagocytic activity) was noted in 6-week-old rats treated with 2,4-DCP in the drinking water at doses up to 30 mg kg day throughout gestation (Exon and Koller 1985 Exon et al. 1984). Spleen weights were significantly increased at 30 mg kg day, although no histological changes in the spleen were observed.

Hypervariable regions as molecular biomarkers

The ability of HIV to escape host immune response chronically appears to be intimately related to the high mutation frequency of the viral genome, most notably within the envelope gene. The calculated mutation rate during replication of the HIV genome is as much as 106-fold higher than for other genomes.25 Furthermore, HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) has been found to be singularly error prone even among other RTs also lacking 3' 5' exonu-clease activity.26,27 In addition, errors produced by HIV RT appear nonran-dom, with several mutational hotspots located within homo-oligomeric (dA) sequences.25 Therefore, to study the ability of HIV RT to traverse specific homo-oligomeric stretches, we used M13 DNA templates altered to contain oligo(purine) and oligo(prymidine) tracts. The progress of HIV RT along these templates was potently and uniquely inhibited from further progres-

Properties of food matrices

Aquaculture, or fish farming, is a rapidly growing industry. Approximately 80 of the fish and shellfish consumed in the U.S. is imported from other countries, amounting to over 2 billion pounds of harvested seafood imported into the U.S. in 2004. A large percentage (approximately 40 ) of that imported seafood is produced by aquaculture facilities 23 . The use of antibiotics and antifungal drugs in aquaculture has also increased with the expansion of the industry 24 . Fish raised in these high-density environments may experience higher stress and weakened immune systems requiring drugs to stem disease outbreaks. Methods for residue extraction and isolation in aquatic organisms are similar to those used for other animal tissues. The fat content of fish can vary significantly depending on the species and even the specific environmental growing conditions.

Environmental Degradation

TCDD is formed because of the vigorous conditions that are required to hydrolyze the aryl chloro groups. The presence of TCDD in 2,4,5-T led to the ban of its use in the United States in 1979. Related toxic five-membered ring derivatives polychlorinated dibenzofurans reaction (8-30) , formed in the manufacture of PCBs, may be also responsible for some of the toxicity of these compounds. It is generally considered that 2,4-D is safe, but it has been established that it belongs to the class of compounds called peroxisome prolif-erators. Cell structures containing bundles of enzymes are called peroxisomes. Compounds that induce the formation of peroxisomes are also known to cause tumors and testicular damage in rodents. It has also been suggested as the cause of non-Hodgkins lymphomas in the Vietnam veterans who handled Agent Orange (discussed shortly) and as an immune system suppressor.

Streptomycetes in Soil

During their complex, vegetative life cycle streptomycetes are able to excrete numerous extracellular molecules, e.g., hydrolytic enzymes like proteases, cellulases, lignocellulase, xylanases and chitinases, and a high number of secondary metabolites, like antibiotics, fungicides, siderophores, signaling molecules, modulators of immune response, effectors of plant growth like indol acetic acid, amphipathic proteins and geosmins (Chater et al. 2010). This versatility in secondary metabolite production makes them important tools for pharmaceutical, medical and biotechnological applications as well as for bioremediation approaches. The genome of S. coelicolor encodes 60 proteases, 13 chitinases chitosanases of two different families, eight cellulases endoglucanases, many high- and low-molecular-weight compounds and enzymes for the production of secondary metabolites, 7,000 of which have been described for different Streptomyces species and isolates (Chater et al. 2010), with more than 80...

Children S Susceptibility

No direct information is available regarding the health effects of chlorophenols observed in children. However, health effects observed in adults are also expected to be of potential concern in children. Although no direct information is available on the effects of chlorophenols on the developmental process in humans, studies in animals indicate few developmental effects. No significant changes in offspring body or liver weights were observed in rats treated with 2-CP in drinking water at doses up to 50 mg kg day throughout gestation and up to 91 days post partum (Exon and Koller 1981, 1985). No adverse changes in litter sizes, perinatal loss, pup weight, or litter biomass were observed when female rats received a single dose of 4-CP as high as 1,000 mg kg on gestational day 11 (Kavlock 1990). Oral exposure of pregnant rats to a maternal toxic dose of 750 mg kg day 2,4-DCP for 10 gestational days induced a slight decrease in fetal weight and a statistically significant delayed...

Potential 111 Health Effects among Compost Workers

When a patient is sensitised to airborne allergens, exposure to those allergens can trigger the immunoglobulin E (IgE) pathway of the immune system causing allergic rhinitis (inflammation of the nasal passageways) or allergic asthma (upper respiratory tract broncho-constriction). Rhinitis and asthma frequently coexist in the same patient and both diseases are increasing in prevalence in the general population. Organic dust rhinitis and asthma are not caused by a single allergen present in the dust different allergens may be responsible in different patients.29'58-60 Workers handling compost are often exposed to higher levels of allergens than the general population and the species to which they are exposed may differ.

Biomarkers Used to Characterize Effects Caused by Chlorophenols

Dermal and ocular lesions (Bioassay Systems 1981 Rhodia 1978 Younger Labs 1975). Both myoclonic convulsions and epithelial tissue corrosion are commonly observed after exposure to numerous phenolic compounds and are therefore not necessarily diagnostic of monochlorophenol exposure. Increasing chlorination results in clinical signs of metabolic derangement, such as hyperthermia and blood pressure decrements (Angel and Rogers 1972 Farquharson et al. 1958). These clinical signs are not specific to chlorophenols they occur following exposure to any agent that uncouples mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation such as nitrophenol (Ahlborg and Thunburg 1980). Other effects of chlorophenols, including effects on the immune system (Exon et al. 1984) and on reproduction (Exon and Koller 1985), are also not specific to chlorophenols.

Development of Resistance in Target Insects

In general, the most frequently observed mechanism of Cry toxin resistance involves defects in receptor binding, followed by resistance owing to defects in protease production, elevated immune response or enhanced esterase production. Ma et al. (2005) demonstrated that feeding a sub-lethal concentration of CrylAc toxin to H. arm gera led to tolerance to CrylAc toxin. This could be correlated with an elevated immune response associated with the production of pro-coagulant hexamerin that recognizes and forms specific aggregates around the toxin molecules. The various insect pests known to have developed resistance against the Bt toxins and the mechanism underlining the development of the resistance have been listed in Table 20.1. Evolution of resistance is a genetically based decrease in a population's susceptibility to a toxin. Because of concerns that insects would evolve resistance to Bt crops, a resistance management tactic, the 'high dose plus refuge...

Areas In Which Research Is Needed

Pathogen or is a natural benefit of a healthy, nonstressed coral immune system. A few reports have detailed physical defense mechanisms of corals against pathogen invasion, such as the general property of mucus production (e.g., Hayes and Goreau 1998). The most detailed work in this area to date is the recent work on seafan resistance to aspergillosis, in which it was demonstrated that gorgonians can recognize and encapsulate invading fungal hyphae (Kim and others 1999). It has been difficult to conduct research in the area of coral immunology for two reasons lack of funding and the rapid emergence of diseases coupled with their often transient and nonrecurring nature.

Identification of Data Needs

No experimental data involving the immunotoxic effects of human exposure to chlorophenols are available. Oral studies in rats suggest that a low dose of 2,4-DCP (3 mg kg day) is associated with a decreased delayed-type hypersensitivity response and an increased humoral immune response with decreased thymus weights following intermediate exposure (Exon et al. 1984). Both erythroid and myeloid elements of the bone marrow are depleted after oral administration with 500 mg kg day of 2,4-DCP for 13 weeks in rats (NTP 1989). Oral administration of other chlorophenols

Toxicological aspects of BFRs

PBDEs Generally, the lower BDEs (tri- to hexa-congeners), present in the penta-BDE formulation, are more bioavailable and persistent and, therefore, cause adverse effects at lower doses than the octa- and deca-BDE formulations. Thyroid hyperplasia, decreased T4 levels at 10mg kg body weight (bw) and effects in the liver at 2mg kg bw have been observed in dosing studies with rats. The no-observed effect levels (NOELs) were established at 1 mg kg for penta-BDE, 100 mg kg for octa-BDE, and 1,000 mg kg for deca-BDE 23 . Fetal toxicity teratogenicity has been demonstrated for octa-BDE in rats and rabbits from 2 mg kg bw 24 . Carcinogenicity studies, only performed for deca-BDE, showed increased incidences of neoplastic nodules in the livers of rats at the lowest dose tested (1,200 mg kg bw d) 25 . However, deca-BDE is not listed as human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC) 26 . Of more concern are effects on neurobehavioural development, thyroid hormone...

Peripheral benzodiazepine receptors what are they

In the brain.25-27 The PBR differs from the central type in pharmacology, subcellular distribution and anatomical localization. The differences in pharmacology between the central- and peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors were first identified with clonazepam, which binds to the central-type receptor with nanomolar affinity but exhibits low affinity for the PBR.28-30 Studies on the subcellular distribution of the PBR indicate that this receptor is associated with the outer membrane of mitochondria.31-33 Recent evidence raises the possibility that a small fraction of PBR may be localized in the plasma membrane of peripheral tissues.27 Consistent with its localization to the mitochondrial outer membrane, activation of the PBR is the initial and rate-limiting step in the transport of cholesterol from the outer to the inner membrane of mitochondria. Thus, the PBR appears to play a key role in neurosteroid synthesis.34-36 In addition to its important role in steroidogen-esis, the PBR...

Ongoing epidemiological studies that include biomarker measurements

This project is designed to replicate and extend previous findings by studying a highly exposed cohort of infants, and using infant tests that have the potential to provide information regarding possible mechanisms of action. 300 Inuit infants from Nunavik and Greenland will be assessed at birth, 6 and 11 months of age. The impact of PCBs and methylmercury exposure on newborn's thyroid hormones, physical growth, immune system function, physical and neurological maturity, overall health, mental, psychomotor and neurobehavioral development, and visual and spatial information processing will be studied. This research will also provide the opportunity to per

Polychlorinated biphenyls

Unfortunately, our ability to interpret all of the information obtained with congener-specific measurements is somewhat limited at present, since not all congeners have been studied by themselves. There are several added complications. The rates of clearance of PCBs from the body by liver metabolism varies greatly with different congeners, depending on how many and where the chlorines are located. Lower chlorinated congeners are, in general, more easily metabolized than are higher chlorinated ones. Those congeners that are most persistent in the human body are those that are present in the Aroclor mixtures and have six or more chlorines. It is clear that some adverse effects of PCBs are mediated by activation of the Ah receptor, an action similar to that of 2,3,7,8-dibenzo-p-dioxin,6 and these are known to cause cancer and immune system suppression. Only the coplanar PCBs (congeners

Methods for Determining Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect

There are no specific markers of the biological effects of chlorophenols. Acute exposure to monochlorophenols results in myelonic convulsions (Angel and Rogers 1972 Borzelleca et al. 1985a, 1985b Farquharson et al. 1958), and exposure to chlorophenols also results in effects on the immune system (Exon et al. 1984) and on reproduction (Exon and Koller 1985). Further studies are needed to relate levels of chlorophenols in biological media to observed effects. One would doubt that these biological effects (myelonic convulsions) are specific enough to be a food biomarker of effect.

Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect

No carcinogenic or noncarcinogenic effect in exposed humans has been associated with a specific chlorophenol or a group of chlorophenols. With the possible exceptions of convulsions following monochlorophenol exposure (Angel and Rogers 1972 Borzelleca et al. 1985a, 1985b Farquharson et al. 1958), clearly defined end points of toxicity in animals are not known. Furthermore, these end points that are associated with chlorophenol exposure are not specific to chlorophenols. When in direct contact with skin and eyes, the chlorophenols demonstrate varying degrees of corrosiveness (Bioassay Systems 1982 Rhodia 1978 Younger Labs 1975). Other effects of chlorophenols, including effects on the immune system (Exon et al. 1984) and reproduction (Exon and Koller 1985), are also not specific to chlorophenols.

Arsenic Toxicity of Food Chain

Cirrhosis and ascites, sensory disturbance and peripheral neuritis, anorexia and loss of weight (Webb 1966). Although the effects of arsenic, as recounted previously, result in several kinds of diseases, it certainly may also impact adversely on the immune system, which may predispose to viral bacterial infections. Several of such diseases resulting from alterations of the immunologic surveillance may not have been known to be due to arsenic and therefore may not have been attributed to arsenic effects. A probing into this area is therefore appropriate. The toxicity of specific arsenic chemical species is mentioned later (Oremland and Stolz 2005).

Impact of Mussel Consumption to Human Health 9441 Beneficial Effects If Mussel Consumption

Hg is highly toxic and extremely damaging to cellular and tissue function, Crinnion (2000) and Fleisher (2001). Hg exposure reduces the mucosal entry of sugars and amino acids to 80-90 of the control levels in the small intestine cells within several minutes and blocks intestinal nutrient transport by interacting directly with the brush border membrane transport proteins. Both Me-Hg and elemental Hg, once absorbed, can cross the blood-brain and placental barriers, Crinnion (2000) and Fleisher (2001). Both forms ofHg are immunotoxic, although they differ quantitatively and qualitatively in their effects on the immune system. Me-Hg accumulates mainly in the kidneys, liver, and brain, Fleisher (2001). Elemental Hg may accumulate in the brain, lungs, fatty tissues, kidney, liver and digestive tract. Over time, Hg accumulates and is slowly converted into inorganic Hg, Crinnion (2000). As inorganic Hg, it binds to sulfur-containing molecules, such as hemoglobin in the blood and the powerful...

Immunological and Lymphoreticular Effects

As shown in Table 2-2 and Figure 2-2, immune system effects have been reported in animals at low doses of 2,4-DCP. Decreased delayed-type hypersensitivity occurred in rats during 15-week-duration exposure to 3 mg kg day of 2,4-DCP in drinking water, and increased serum antibodies to key hole limpert nemocyanin were found in the blood of rats during similar exposures to 30 mg kg day (Exon and Koller 1985 Exon et al. 1984). Macrophage function, measured by the in vitro phagocytosis of sheep red blood cells, showed no effect from 2,4-DCP treatment. These results suggest that the immune system is quite sensitive to 2,4-DCP. No immune system effects occurred with exposure to 0.3 mg kg day (Exon et al. 1984). Based on the NOAEL of 0.3 mg kg day, an intermediate-duration oral MRL of 0.003 mg kg day was calculated for the chlorophenols as described in the footnote in Table 2-2. The LOAEL for 2,4-DCP was the lowest among all the intermediate-duration LOAELs for all the chlorophenols discussed...

Immunological Effects

Pathological changes in immune system tissues other than thymus were also observed in some of the above studies. These included hypocellularity of bone marrow and lymphoid elements in spleen and Peyer's patches of guinea pigs given single doses of 3 mg kg day 2,3,4,7,8-pentaCDF or 5 m g kg day 2,3,7,8-tetraCDF (Moore et al. 1979), and increased extramedullary hematopoiesis in splenic red pulp and occasional atrophic changes in lymph nodes in rats treated with 1 mg kg day 2,3,4,7,8-pentaCDF for 13 weeks (Pluess et al. 1988a, 1988b Poiger et al. 1989). There were no treatment-related histological changes in lymph nodes or spleen in rats similarly treated with

Role of Compost to Combat Stresses

Compost amendment to soil is mostly considered as a way to improve the soil fertility and physical structure, as it helps in stabilization of the aggregated framework which may reduces erosion and runoff process (Bresson et al. 2001 Barzegar et al. 2002 Innerebner et al. 2006). Furthermore, it increases the amount of vital nutrients and soil organic carbon (Filcheva and Tsadilas 2002). Utilization of compost also stimulates the soil micro flora and fauna, particularly in degraded and arid environments (Ouedraogo et al. 2001 Ros et al. 2003). However, the response of the micro-bial community shows variation according to the nature of the organic amendments (Pascual et al. 1998 Garcia-Gil et al. 2000), and the level of compost application (Albiach et al. 2000 Garcia-Gil et al. 2000). The enriched compost carries millions of microorganisms, a tightly knitted soil food web, creating a natural immune system for the plants, acting as a natural predator against most of the known soil borne...

Epidemic Control At The Individual Level

*For some infections, such as HIV, there may be an acute phase where mild symptoms are apparent, before progression into the carrier state. For HIV, this acute phase manifests as flulike symptoms and occurs in the week or two following infection. Not all individuals will experience this phase. After this acute phase, all outward signs of the disease subside and the person enters the carrier stage, during which he or she can be infectious (depending on the amount of circulating virus and integrity of the immune system). The acute phase infection has been used as an early surveillance system to identify those recently infected, weeks before traditional testing would have been able to detect the presence of the infection. It is hoped that early detection during the acute phase could be exploited to treat patients before the virus enters particular cell types, increasing the likelihood of clearing the infection. function by exposing the immune system to just enough of a pathogen to induce...

Subchronic Chronic Toxicity

At present, only limited data are available for assessing the risk to the aquatic environment, i.e., the populations of aquatic species exposed subchronically or chronically to low concentrations of parent compounds and metabolites of NMs and PCMs. In general, there are three potential adverse interactions of xenobio-tics with the health and sustainability of a population that are of primary importance (i) an extremely high incidence of pathological changes, e.g., tumors 32 resulting from genotoxic or a tumor promoting activity (ii) suppression of the immune system and thus higher susceptibility of the population to pathogens

Other Therapeutic Proteins

A number of human growth factors and cytokines, proteins that regulate cell division and differentiation have also been expressed in plants. Examples include human somatotropin, a growth hormone 85 epidermal growth factor, an important regulator of mammalian cell growth and division 86 granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which promotes white blood cell production 87 erythropoietin, a regulator of red blood cell production 88 and interleukins, important facilitators of the immune system, which were expressed in tobacco suspension culture cells and secreted into the medium 89 .

Air Pollution And Global Environmental Change

Air can become contaminated with pollutants from motor vehicles, factories, power plants, and many other sources. Such pollutants can cause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive or birth defects, damage to the immune system, and respiratory problems, or they may cause adverse effects to the environment. The 1990 Clean Air Act amendments list 188 toxic air pollutants that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is required to regulate. These include particulate matter volatile organic compounds such as benzene and toluene halogen compounds such as tetrachloroethene, dichloromethane, and dioxin heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury, chromium, and lead and other hazardous compounds such as asbestos. Indoor air pollutants in the home are also of concern because this closed environment is where people generally spend most of their time. Indoor air pollution can result from combustion sources such as oil, gas, kerosene, coal, or tobacco products. Building materials...


In the case of pathogens the mode of action is often complex and several processes may be involved in the insect's death. For instance, an infection sequence of an entomopathogenic fungus may consist of the following steps adherence to the insects' cuticle, host recognition and germination, appressorium formation, penetration of the cuticle by making a penetration peg and cuticle degrading enzymes, growth inside the insect and overcoming its immune system, possibly by release of toxins, and further development in the insect and finally killing the insect. This can be followed by sporulation outside the insect and spread of the spores for a new infestation cycle (Butt 2002).


Seafood waste has considerable amounts of lipids which can be used for the extraction of retinol, Cholesterol and a-tocopherol. The removal of lipids was up to 76.9 by using lactic acid fermentation compared to the removal of lipids by chemical treatment (46.1 ) as reported by L'opez-Cervantes et al. (2006). Similarly the removal of calcium was higher by using bioconversion (Beaney et al. 2005). Retinol, a-tocopherol and cholesterol are amongst the nutritionally important lipids in foods Retinol is also known as Vitamin A. It is an important micronutrient required for vision, growth, reproduction, and maintenance of the immune system (Ball 2000 De Vries and Silvera 2002). a-Tocopherol (Vitamin E) is an important antioxidant and is required for muscular and reproductive functions (Lopez-Cervantes et al. 2006). Cholesterol is another important lipid which is a precursor of bile acids, steroid hormones, and Vitamin D (Lopez-Cervantes et al. 2006).


It is a highly immunosuppressive toxin produced by a wide variety of widespread moulds. Interestingly, gliotoxin is produced by the organism Aspergillus fumigatus during its pathogenic state as a causative agent of the respiratory disease known as aspergillosis in turkeys. This compound belongs to a group of fungal metabolites, some of them toxic, called epipolythiodioxopiper-azines. This toxin exhibits immunosuppressive activity against certain cells of the immune system.

Health Effects

Various effects have been reported in animals exposed to PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs 48 . Many of the toxic effects of dioxins were high dose effects 49,50 . The most commonly reported pathologies are endometriosis, immunotoxic effects, cancer, birth defects, effects on the reproductive and the neuro-endocrine-immune systems, altered metabolism and specific organ dysfunction 35,51-56 .

Additional Issues

One additional issue regards questions relating to pathogens of marine organisms. Although this is not my main area of expertise, I have heard people talk about epidemics among marine organisms, possibly including endangered species such as marine mammals. Almost certainly these are exacerbated by pollution or some other source that might have stressed the immune system of these animals.


Manganese, an essential trace element that is found in varying amounts in all tissues, is one of the most widely used metals in industry. Exposure to excess manganese results in manganese toxicity, including Parkinson-like symptoms (Chan et al. 2000 Erikson and Aschner 2003 Gerber et al. 2002), and abnormalities of the immune system (Vartanian et al. 1999). Manganese hyperaccumulation has been arbitrarily defined by a threshold foliar concentration of 10,000 mg kg-1 dry weight (Baker and Brooks 1989). Plants that hyperccumulate Mn are predominantly woody and hence unsuited to short-term controlled study (Fernando et al. 2008). The number of species has varied with taxonomic changes, and currently nine are recognized worldwide (Bidwell et al. 2002 Reeves and Baker 2000 Xue et al. 2004). The heterogeneity of the Mn-hyperaccumulative trait was studied in Phytolacca acinosa a herbaceous species, under controlled conditions (Xue et al. 2005) and in natural populations of the tree Gossia...

Food Irradiation

Those opposed to food irradiation believe that irradiation makes the food unsafe. However, the Joint Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food of the World Health Organization (WHO), representing several international organizations, reached the conclusion that the irradiation of any food up to an overall dose of 10 kGy causes no toxicological hazard and introduces no special nutritional or microbiological problems. This dose will not produce sterile foods of the type needed by people who are diagnosed as having compromised immune systems. Apparently, ionizing radiation does not destroy food-borne viruses.

Alkyl Phenols

Thyroid hormones such as thyroxine not only control metabolic rates but are also involved in regulation and differentiation of the developing central nervous system (Waring and Haris 2005). Lesser recognized, but just as important, are substances that hamper with thyroid and androgen hormones. Antiandrogens, like the fungicide vinclozolin, produce males with malformed organs and female characteristics. Opposite effects are seen in fish exposed to the growth steroid trenbolone and plant steroid compounds found in pulp and paper mill effluent. Both masculanize, producing females with male attributes. The reproductive and immune function in Baltic seals, were adversely affected on exposure to organochlorines ensuing in marked population declines. These seals exhibit a compromised endocrine system, but precise mechanisms of action remain unclear. Eggshell thinning and altered gonadal development have been observed in birds of prey exposed to dichlorodiphe-nyltrichloroethane, resulting in...

Hapten synthesis

Small molecules, such as most food contaminants, with molecular weights lower than 5,000-10,000 do not elicit immune responses. In those cases, the molecules are named haptens because it is necessary to attach them to a large carrier protein in order to stimulate the immune response. Sometimes, the hapten is used as detector, then it is attached to an enzyme. The optimum hapten ratio may depend on the study objectives, the nature of the antigen, immunization protocol, etc. A general rule of thumb is to target high hapten ratios for immunogens and low hapten ratios for coating antigens or enzyme tracers. For immunogens, a high hapten ratio implies greater exposure of the immune system to the hapten for coating antigens or enzyme tracers, a lower hapten density implies fewer haptens to compete with the analyte in the assay. Optimum hapten density is often determined empirically with checkerboard titration procedures. Such procedures are very rapid and are normally adequate to optimize...


Dioxins are persistent and bioaccumulative, and the most studied dioxin, 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (Fig. 8.8) is confirmed to cause cancer in humans (McGregor et al. 1998) . Dioxins are also endocrine disrupters, and are able to modify the immune system (Grassman et al. 1998). The World Health Organization recommended safe limit for dioxins are 1-4 pg kg day. Research by the UK Ministry of Agriculture has shown that adults are already taking in enough dioxin (including dioxin-like polychloro biphenyls) in their food violating this new limit, and children are taking in even more quantities (ENDS 1998). Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, known collectively as dioxin like compounds, are by-products of a variety of industrial and thermal processes. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans have 75 and 135 congeners respectively however, only seven and ten respectively, are commonly found in humans. Unfortunately,...

Growth hormone

Hplc Chromatograms

Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (ST), is a 22-kDa protein naturally produced by the anterior pituitary gland. STs are important factors influencing metabolic and somatogenic processes including growth, immune function, reproduction and lactation in mammals 92-95 . It was known as early as the 1930s that the injection of dairy cows with pituitary extracts increased milk yield 96 . GHs are widely used outside Europe to stimulate milk production in dairy cows and as a general growth promoter in pigs 97 . Human GH is also thought to be widely abused in human sports since the increase in muscle size and strength makes them a viable alternative to anabolic steroids 98,99 . Recombinant DNA techniques allow the production of large quantities of recombinant GHs which may exhibit slightly different chemical structures from the pituitary ST, by adding a number of amino acids on the N-terminal side. Indeed, various forms of recombinant somatotropins (rSTs) with slightly different...


Vaccines are used to elicit a protective immune response without the accompanying disease process, and single proteins specific to pathogens (subunit vaccines) are increasingly used for this purpose, usually being administered by injection to induce a systemic immune response, but when these are administered orally, they can elicit IgA in the mucosa, an important route for pathogen ingress. The concept of using plants to produce vaccines is particularly attractive not only because of the advantages of plants outlined above, but additionally because vaccines can be grown in situ, and this together with oral administration removes the need for cold conservation of a purified protein, although accurate dosage of the vaccine may be an issue when using raw plant material. Production in seed crops (maize, rice, barley, soy) may permit long-term storage (years) at ambient temperatures. Additionally, because an unpurified plant-produced vaccine is contained within the plant cell, the...

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