NoTillage vegetable cropping systems

Several researchers found that cabbage yields in NT were similar to that of CT (Hoyt et al. 1996, Morse 1995, Morse & Seward 1986), although Knavel and Herron (1981) indicated that spring cabbage yields were reduced in NT when compared to CT. Wilhot et al. (1990) related cabbage yield reductions in NT to poor plant establishment impeded crop growth more than to the effects of a NT production system. Furthermore, similar to what has been observed for other vegetable crops, when weed control...

The role of membrane characteristics

The success of pesticides removal from potable water by membrane processes is strongly related to the type of membrane selected. Important aspects to consider when choosing an appropriate membrane are MWCO, porosity, degree of ionic species rejection, surface charge and membrane type (polymer composition). The significance of each parameter on pesticides removal is directly related to the solute properties (molecular weight, molecular size, acid disassociation constant-pKa, and hydrophobicity...

References

Appleby, A.P. (2005) A history of weed control in the United States and Canada - a sequel. Weed Science, 53, 762-768, ISSN 0043-1745. Askew, S.D. and J.W. Wilcut (1999) Cost and weed management with herbicide programs in glyphosate-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Technology, 13, 308-313, ISSN 0890-037X. Balkcom, K.S. and D.W. Reeves (2005) Sunn-hemp utilized as a legume cover crop for corn production. Agronomy Journal, 97, 26-31, ISSN 0002-1962. Bauer, P.J. and D.W. Reeves (1999) A...

Effect of pesticides properties on retention

According to the preceding discussion, the selection of an appropriate membrane is primarily made on the basis of key pesticide parameters, like the molecular weight, the molecular dimensions (length and width), the polarity (dipole moment), the hydrophobicity hydrophilicity (logKow), and the acid dissociation constant (pKa). Several research groups have systematically studied the role of one or more of the aforementioned pesticide parameters on membrane rejection, and their results are...

Analytical herbicide quantification

Herbicide analytical methods differ by chemical due to variation in solubility, structure, volatility, etc. Therefore, various methods are used to quantify. One common method is the use of high pressure liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). This procedure allows for accurate measures for many different compounds at extremely sensitive levels of detection. Proper sample handling includes solvent identification, solvent ratios, extraction methods, injection volumes,...

Conclusion and future perspectives

The exploitation of herbicides for weed control is vital to increase the yields and productivity in agriculture. Without the use of herbicides, it would have been impossible to fully mechanize the production of cotton, sugar beets, grains, potatoes, and corn. As a consequence, given the harmful economic implications of poor harvesting, herbicide production is the principal driver of the farming industry. However, the continuous and massive application of these compounds can negatively affect...

Conclusion

A number of genes have been employed for the generation of genetically-modified crops possessing tolerance to herbicides in an effort promote crop growth and discourage the growth of competing plants such as weeds. Herbicide-resistant genes are also invaluable for use as selectable markers in the genetic transformation of plants. The majority of herbicide-resistant genes are derived from soil bacteria such as Agrobacterium and Streptomyces, organisms which have never been utilized as...

Introduction

From a practical point of view it is necessary to use an exact low cost and time consuming approximation to obtain information about an actual weed infestation. In this study the intensity of Cirsium arvense (L.) SCOP infestation was monitored in a 12 ha experimental field, where malting barley (2002) and winter wheat (2003) were grown. The sampling points for C. arvense infestation were established in a square raster with one 18 m long side of one raster unit Cirsium arvense occurrence was...

Herbicide soil extraction OA results

Table 6 shows the average recovery data obtained by duplicate for each of the 9 experiments. For the regular analysis, an ANOVA table with pooled errors was calculated from these experimental data in order to identify individual sources of variation and to calculate the contribution of each factor to the response variation (Table 7). ANOVAs of the recovery data obtained for both matrices revealed that factor S, the type of solvent, contributed by the highest percentage to the variability of the...

Effect of the feed water composition

Membrane filtration experiments with real or simulated raw waters (i.e. solutions containing salts, organic matter and pesticides) have shown that pesticide rejection can vary greatly, depending on the feed water composition. Specifically, pH, ionic strength, and the presence of organic matter are identified as having an influence on pesticide rejection. The respective literature results are discussed next. The role of pH on pesticide rejection is related mainly to the changes taking place in...

Weed control

Weed control is a critical farm operation and can significantly affect crop yield. Herbicides have vital importance in weed control and high crop yield however these have potential to produce harmful effects 1 . Herbicides are applied to whole field uniformly without considering the weed density. Weeds are often patchy rather than even or randomly distributed in the crop fields 2 . Total variable costs in 2002 for U.K were within a range of 1,720 ha and 1,870 ha for main crop potatoes, of which...

Herbicides weed control and sesame tolerance

Several herbicides provide excellent control of weeds with minimal to no damage to sesame. However, in evaluating herbicides, there have been conflicting results, and it is difficult to sort out why some herbicides work in one area and do not work in another. Also, in some cases, at the same location, the herbicides effectively control weeds and little sesame injury is noted in one year however, the opposite may be true the following year. With most herbicides, herbicide dose, formulation, soil...

Fluometuron

Fluometuron controls many annual dicotyledon weeds, however, it does not completely control some of the more troublesome weeds found in crops such as cotton (Burke & Wilcut, 2004). These troublesome weeds that fluometuron does not completely control include Amaranthus spp., Ipomoea spp., prickly sida (Sida spinosa L.), and sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia L.) (Buchanan, 1992 Crowley et al., 1979 Culpepper & York, 1997). Fluometuron applied postemergence may injure cotton and delay maturity...

Molecular dynamics simulations of PSIIatrazine complex Relevance for biosensor applications of PSII

As already detailed above, atrazine is known to bind in the eukaryotic D1 protein region encompassing residues Phe211-Leu275, that partially overlap the QB binding pocket (Giardi et al., 1988 Oettmeier 1999). Analysis of mutations conferring herbicide resistance or sensitivity indicated that Ala 250, Ala251 and Ser264 are located close to the atrazine binding pocket and probably directly interact with it (see above, Oettmeier 1999 Johanningmeier et al., 2000). Using this information, in the...

Summary and conclusions

The effectiveness of NT production systems depends on the vegetable crop grown, the crop establishment method, establishment of high residue mulch from a cover crop on the soil surface, and available PRE and POST herbicides for the vegetable crop. NT systems seem to work better in those vegetables that 1) have vines that rapidly spread across the soil surface (e.g., cucumber and pumpkin) which suppress weed growth 2) provide rapid canopy closure (e.g., broccoli planted on narrow rows) to...

Optimization experimental designs Orthogonal Arrays

The optimization of any process can be tried either by the trial and error method, the one-at-a-time design or achieved by experimental design methods. The one-at-a-time design is a classical Univariate method which consists of investigating the response for each factor while all other factors are held at a constant level. Therefore, the variation of response can be attributed to the variation of the factor. They are time-consuming methods which do not take interactive effects between factors...

Outcrossing in wheat The problem of coexistence

Wheat is a self-pollinating crop but outcrossing is possible between cultivars at variable rates that are related with populations, genotypes and environmental conditions (Jain, 1975). The main studies on pollen dispersal in wheat appear in two stages. In the 1960s and beginning of the 1970s managing pollen drift was a major concern within the context of commercial production of hybrid wheat, where achieving high levels of genetic purity and satisfactory seed set on male sterile plants were...

PCA and cluster analysis Previous experiments for soil extraction OA

Table 2 shows the previous tests designed to characterize the influence of the variables that would be further optimized with the OA after their analysis by PCA and Cluster techniques. These experiments were designed taking into account the Kovacs series of extraction solvents (Kovacs, 1996), together with the use of water and different modifiers (acetic acid and ammonium hydroxide) in order to increase recoveries of ionic herbicides as already detailed in section 2.3. Acetone was chosen as the...

Carbon nanotubes

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) represent the novel carbon-based nanomaterials with unique properties such as high surface areas, large aspect ratios, remarkably high mechanical strength as well as electrical and thermal conductivities. They can be described as a graphite sheet rolled up into a nanoscale-tube. Two structural forms of CNTs exist single-walled (SWCNTs) and multi-walled (MWCNTs) nanotubes. CNT lengths can be as short as a few hundred nanometers or as long as several microns. SWCNT have...

How can we select bona fide target

Most of the herbicides attack to the unique biochemistry of plants causing severe disruption of the plant metabolism. These are usually inhibitors of specific enzymes binding either at the active site of the enzyme or at some domain apart from the active site (Berg et al., 1999 Dayan et al. 2009). Among the strategies to identify suitable targets, one strategy was to assume that if an enzyme in a pathway or process is a target, then others in the same pathway or process might be too. The...

Phenoxycarboxylic acid herbicides

The herbicidal effect of 2, 4-D was first discovered by Amchem company in 1942 (Kuang et al., 2006b), and more categories were developed by a lot of companies since 1945 based on the structure of 2, 4-D. The general formula of this class herbicides see fig 1 and the chemical structure of some most used phenoxycarboxylic acid herbicides were summarized in table 2. 2, 4-D is the world's largest broad-leaved weed herbicides. Phenoxycarboxylic acid Class of Herbicides EU U. S. A Japan China Table...

M Jl

OO fluroxypyr butoxypropyl ester fluroxypyr-butoxypropyl 3. Chromatographic methods for chiral herbicides 3.1 Separation of chiral herbicides by HPLC HPLC combined with kinds of CSPs is one of the most common and easily obtained approaches for enantiomer analysis and preparation. Today, CSPs have been developed at least seven classes, including Pirkle-type CSPs, polysaccharides CSPs, cyclodextrins CSPs, macrocyclic glycopeptide antibiotics CSPs, proteins CSPs, crown ethers CSPs and ligand...

Herbicide absorption and translocation

The biological activity of herbicide within a plant is a function of absorption, translocation, metabolism, and susceptibility of the plant to the herbicide and or to its metabolites. Because of that, the simple act of an herbicide reaching the leaf surface - or roots, in the case of a soil-applied herbicide - does not guarantee its effective action (Silva et al., 2007). The herbicide needs to be absorbed and translocated to reach the organelle where it will express its herbicidal activity. An...

Mutated ALS genes as plastid sustainable markers

Tobacco Metabolism

The employment of some plant-origin genes for herbicide tolerance has solved the problem and allayed the public's anxiety. We have focused on the use of mALS genes as sustainable markers. It is well known that ALS imparts herbicide tolerance by mutation at several amino acid residues (Figure 2). Herbicide-tolerant plants have been reported for rice, tobacco and Arabidopsis (Chang et al., 1998 Tan et al., 2005 Shimizu et al., 2002 Kawai et al., 2007b Okuzaki et al., 2007). Several mutated...

Electrochemical oxidation of different formulations

A reduced number of papers deal with the oxidation of herbicides using electrochemical methods indeed, the majority of the works focuses on photochemical processes. However, a literature search reveals that there is increased interest in the former subject. Table 3 lists the latest papers dealing with the electrochemical degradation treatment of herbicides. Studies of Diuron photocatalytic degradation show that the herbicide mineralization rate reaches almost 97 after 8 hours of irradiation...

Prometryn

Prometryn has been widely used as a residual soil-applied and postemergence-directed herbicide in cotton grown west of the Mississippi River in the U.S. (Byrd, 2000) and controls many annual grasses and broadleaf weeds (Corbett et al., 2002 Burke & Wilcut, 2004). Prometryn is the only registered herbicide in the U.S. that provides excellent broad-spectrum control of weeds such as little mallow (Malva parviflora L.), shepherdspurse (Capsella bursa-pastoris L.), common purslane (Portulaca...

Herbicide translocation through plasmodesmata

All herbicides applied to the leaves of plants with C4 metabolism must penetrate the vascular bundle sheath cells in order to achieve xylem and or phloem (Vidal, 2002). Once these cells are highly lignified (suberin may also occur in some monocots), the movement of the herbicide molecules from cells in the mesophyl to the cells of the vascular bundle sheath occurs exclusively by plasmodesmata present this interface (Osmond & Smith, 1976). This is the only way the herbicide can reach the...

Alachlor

Alachlor, a chloroacetamide herbicide, has been widely used in corn, groundnut, snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and soybean for preemergence annual grass and broadleaf weed control (Wilson et al., 1988). Bijanzadeh and Ghadiri (2006) reported that alachlor alone controlled redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) 68 to 72 in one year and at least 92 in another, but the efficacy of atrazine plus alachlor increased when tank-mixed together. Alachlor is the most widely used sesame herbicide...

Summary

As a number of enzymes related in the metabolic pathways of plants are essential for the growth and development, those can be utilized as potential herbicide targets. We have performed molecular genetic dissection using reverse genetics of antisense approach to identify AtKAPAS gene encoding KAPA synthase in the pathway of biotin biosynthesis and to characterize the phenotypic consequences of loss-of-function mutations (Hwang et al., 2003 2010). Many researchers have investigated the KAPAS in...

Clethodim Fluazifop Pbutyl Sethoxydim and Haloxyfop

Large seed grasses such as Texas millet Urochloa texana (Buckl.) R. Webster and rhizome johnsongrass can be a serious problem in sesame fields and are not controlled with current preemergence herbicides therefore, postemergence grass herbicides are an absolute necessity. Postemergence control of annual grasses can be obtained with several herbicides (Grichar, 1991 a,b Prostko et al., 2001). Grichar (1991a) found that sethoxydim applied early postemergence provided more effective annual grass...

Retention mechanisms in NFRO processes

There is a great deal of published work on the basic retention mechanisms and the various applications of NF RO processes (Mulder, 1996 Scott, 1998 Nghiem & Sch fer, 2005). In general, the separation process involves several mechanisms such as size exclusion or charge repulsion. Moreover, a sorption-diffusion mechanism can also contribute to the separation process, attributed to hydrophobic interactions or hydrogen bonding between the contaminants and the membrane surfaces (solute-membrane...

How to assess the impact of herbicide exposure on soil microbial communities

Although the desorption of an herbicide from soil particles into the aqueous phase facilitates its biodegradation, the bioavailable fraction is also a potential risk for non-degrading microbial populations. Microbial-mediated processes in soils are of critical importance to ecosystem functions, including transformation of organic matter, nutrient release and degradation of xenobiotics. Therefore, an active soil microbial population is considered a key component of good soil quality (Parkin et...

Metolachlor and Smetolachlor

Metolachlor or S-metolachlor are commonly used in various crops for control of small-seeded broadleaf weeds, some annual grasses, and yellow nutsedge (Grichar et al., 1996). S-metolachlor will control small-seeded annual grasses, but does provide inconsistent control of large-seeded annual grasses (Grichar et al., 2004a 2004b). Many growers have reported peanut stunting when soil applications of metolachlor have been followed by rain (Grichar et al., 1996). Grichar et al., (1996) reported that...

Production systems for NoTillage vegetables

Several different production systems have been evaluated for NT vegetables. Although the vegetable crop planting method plays a major role in the successful production of NT vegetables (Table 1), the production system utilized for NT vegetables has shown to have a definite influence on the resulting productivity of the crop. A bare soil NT system will improve weed control compared to CT (Moore et al. 1994, Walters et al. 2008), since the use of NT avoids bringing new weed seeds closer to the...

Importance of herbicides for NoTillage vegetables

Some type of herbicide application is generally required to optimize weed control and maximize vegetable productivity in NT systems, since cover crop residues can generally be expected to provide early-season weed suppression (for about the first 4 to 6 weeks) but not full-season weed control. In NT squash (Walters et al. 2004, 2005) and cucumber (Walters et al. 2007) production systems, the use of winter rye enhanced weed control even when a standard herbicide program was used. In NT pumpkin...

Infusion of POEA

In our study, although POEA did not significantly affect MABP during the infusion period, it progressively depressed left-side ventricular function (decreased the CI and LVSWI and increased the PCWP and CVP), and increased pulmonary vasoconstriction effects (increased the MPAP and PVRI) during and after its infusion, leading to metabolic acidosis with the accumulation of lactate noted at 60 min and at the end of the experiment. In the POEA group, 66.7 (4 6) of the piglets died between 1 and 3 h...

The role and application of bioassay techniques on the impact assessment of herbicides

Bioassays or biological tests applied to the study of herbicides are based on the response of different species, chosen as controls, to the application of the herbicide under study (Horowitz, 1976). They represent a valuable and necessary tool that provides an overview of soil-plant-herbicide relationships (Rahman et al., 1993 Hern ndez-Sevillano et al., 1999). Although there are chemical methods of analysis accurate and simple to use, bioassays have certain advantages in the study of...

Optimization of operational variables Herbicide soil extraction OA

The average recoveries were used as the output variable to optimize. Different OA were developed for acidic analytes and for basic and neutral herbicides due to dual methyl ester formation from the TMSH derivatization of acids and their ester forms prior to their GC analysis, in order to know which form the methyl ester came from. After carefully studying the results obtained from the previous experiments analyzed by PCA, the following variable values were selected for the multiresidue...

Pendimethalin Review In Sesame 2008 To 2016

In-season applications of glyphosate for control of redvine (Brunnichia ovata) in glyphosate-resistant soybean. Weed Technol. 18, 325-331. Anil, K. & Thakur, K. S. (2005). Effect of sowing method and weed control practices on production potential of sesamum (Sesamum indicum)-based intercropping system under rainfed condition, Indian Journal of Weed Science 37, 133-134. Anonymous. (1973). Report 1972-3, Institute of Agricultural Research. Ethiopia, p. 168....

Info

LSD5 (2001r.) 1,07 LSD 1 1,43 LSD 0,1 1,87 LSD5 (2002 r.) 3,38 LSD 1 5,10 LSD 0,1 6,68 LSD5 (2003r.) 3,34 LSD 1 4,46 LSD 0,1 5,84 Fig. 22. Stem height (cm) of peach seedling rootstocks. the seedlings and the developing weed vegetation for moisture and nutrient substances. However, the differences were statistically insignificant. Lower plant height was also reported for the plants of the variants treated with metolachlor at the three rates of Dual Gold 960 EC (Var. 11-13). In average for the...

Sulcotrione mgL

The correlation between serum sulcotrione and tyrosine in male rats from the medium- and high-dose groups. 3.4. Effects of sulcotrione on hepatic enzymes involved in tyrosine catabolism, tyrosinemia, and blood glucose in rat. 3.4.1 Physical observation and mass gain No sign of toxicity was observed in sulcotrione-treated animals until end of experiment and there were no changes in mass gain between controls and sulcotrione-treated animals (date not shown). 3.4.2 Effects of sulcotrione...

Low density polyethylene dissipation research

The exponential decay equation 1 effectively described dry and irrigated glyphosate dissipation (Figure 4). First-order dissipation rate constants (k) for glyphosate were (i.e. slower dissipation) less for the dry study at 0.008 than for the irrigated study at 0.933. For glyphosate, DT50 for the dry study was 84 hours, while it was 1 hour in the irrigated experiment. Glyphosate concentration dropped to less than 5 mg m2 levels by the 2nd irrigation event at 24 hours after treatment. Glyphosate...

Infusion of IPAG

In contrast to G and IPA, POEA and IPAG infusions introduced high death rates. IPAG infusion lowered cardiac contractility and the MABP, accompanied by increases in the MPAP and vascular resistance, which caused heart failure. A 66.7 fatality rate and blood lactate formation with lowered BE values were noted following its infusion with 50 of the dose in the concentration similar to other chemicals. No pulmonary rales were detected by auscultation during the experiments, and no hypoxemia, severe...

Molecularly imprinted polymers

Molecularly imprinted polymers (MlPs) are highly crosslinked polymers with specific binding sites for a particular analyte. The print molecule - called the template - is chemically coupled with one or several functional monomers and then spatially fixed in a solid polymer by the polymerisation reaction. After template removal by extraction, polymers with imprints, which are complementary to the template in terms of size, shape and functionality are obtained. These polymers are able to rebind...

Serum levels of glyphosate analyzed by highperformance liquid chromatography HPLC

To explore the concentration change of glyphosate during infusion, serum concentrations of glyphosate were analyzed in the G and IPAG groups. We adopted HPLC method to measure serum levels of glyphosate, using a PerkinElmer LC 295 with a variable wavelength ultraviolet detector operated at a wavelength of 195 nm, and an anion-exchange column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, Partisil 10 M SAX). Blood samples were centrifuged and the supernatants were then diluted and filtered through 0.2 m nylon membranes...

Quantification of glyphosate

Ruhemann Purple

The chemical structure of GH does not display a chromophore group, so spectroscopic determinations have to be performed only after its derivatization reaction. Hereafter, two different derivatization reactions for GH determination were used. The first derivatization consisted of the reaction of ninhydrin in the presence of the Na2MoO4 catalyst at 100 C (Bhaskara & Nagaraja, 2006), which produces the Ruhemanns purple product with a maximum absorption at 570 nm (Fig. 2A). GH degradation was...

Pyrazine herbicides

Nitrogenase Photosystem

The most successful pyrazine derivative was diquat-dibromide (see Fig. 1, the structure I). This non-selective, contact herbicide has been used to control many submerged and floating aquatic macrophytes which interferes with the photosynthetic process, releasing strong oxidizers that rapidly disrupt and inactivate cells and cellular functions (at present banned in many EU countries). Severe oral diquat intoxication has been associated with cerebral haemorrhages and severe acute renal failure...

Photosynthesisinhibiting pyrazine analogues of chalcones

Chalcones and related compounds chalconoids are aromatic ketones containing two aromatic rings linked with three carbon chain. The presence of an unsaturated double bound is typical for chalcones. Hence, chalcones are 1,3-diarylprop-2-ones. They show antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor and anti-inflammatory properties (Dimmock et al., 1999). The aim of our project was the isosteric replacement of a phenyl moiety in chalcones with the pyrazine ring to form some pyrazine analogues of chalcones...

Glyphosate contamination

In recent years, the intensive use of herbicides has increased environmental concern, partly because of the adverse effects of these chemicals on soil and aquatic microorganisms (Farah et al., 2004). One of the most commonly employed agrochemicals is glyphosate (Fig. 1). N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine is a highly effective broad-spectrum, post-emergence, non- ClO-(sol) + R CO2 + inorganic ions + H+ + e-ClO-(sol) + RCl R selective herbicide widely used in agriculture worldwide (De Amarante et al.,...

Isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway

Isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) is the central intermediate in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids, the most ancient and diverse class of natural products. Two distinct routes of IPP biosynthesis occur in nature, the mevalonate pathway and the recently discovered deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate (DOXP) pathway. The evolutionary history of the enzymes involved in both routes and the phylogenetic distribution of their genes across genomes suggests that the mevalonate pathway is unique to archaebacteria, as...

Reversal study

Reversal effect was estimated via chlorophyll contents to foliar application and via germination. Germination test Seeds of A. thaliana were germinated in 55 mm plastic Petri-dish lined with one-layer filter paper (Advantec No. 2). About 1 mL of each TPTA solution dissolved in absolute acetone with various concentrations of 0, 0.063, 0.0125, and 0.025 mM was spread evenly onto the filter paper (0 5 cm), respectively and allowed to dry in a laboratory fume hood. After that, 1 mL of distilled...

Electrolytic system and electrodes

The results from GH degradation presented in this chapter were obtained using the experimental conditions described below. The electrochemical measurements were conducted in an open system, using a three-compartment electrolytic cell consisting of a main body (50 mL solution) and two smaller compartments containing the counterelectrodes, which were isolated from the main body by coarse glass frits. The electrolyses experiments were accomplished in the galvanostatic mode, under magnetic...

Optimization of operational variables Acidic herbicide analysis OA

Acidic herbicides were divided in two groups, those only present in their acidic form and those also esterified. These esters were called original to differentiate them from the methyl esters produced after derivatization. Due to dual methyl ester formation, different OA were developed for the acidic herbicides (named Acid matrix) and for the original esters (named Ester matrix) in order to know which form the methyl ester came from and the way factors affected both esterification and...

Hydrophilic polymeric sorbents

The hydrophilic polymeric sorbents are obtained by chemical modification of the existing hydrophobic materials or by copolymerisation of monomers that contain suitable functional groups. The polar substituents reduce the interfacial tension between the polymer surface and aqueous sample improving the wetting characteristics and increase contact between the analyte and polymeric sorbent. Strata-X (styrene skeleton modified with a pyrrolidone group) and Oasis HLB (macroporous...

Herbicide Herbicide interactions

A considerable amount of research has been conducted to define interactions among herbicides used in peanut. Herbicides applied in combination either preplant incorporated or preemergence generally increase the spectrum of weed control or the length of residual weed control (Wilcut et al., 1987b 1995). For example, pendimethalin is often applied in combination with alachlor, dimethenamid-P, metolachlor, or S-metolachlor to improve early season weed control (Bridges et al., 1984 Wehtje et al.,...

INTECH open

Free online editions of InTech Books and Journals can be found at www.intechopen.com Part 1 Weed Control and Crop Management 1 Chapter 1 Weed Control in Conservation Agriculture 3 for No-Tillage Vegetable Production 17 of Herbicides in Sesame Production 41 W. James Grichar, Peter A. Dotray and D. Ray Langham Chapter 4 Defining Interactions of Herbicides with Other Agrochemicals Applied to Peanut 73 David L. Jordan, Gurinderbir S. Chahal, Sarah H. Lancaster, Joshua B. Beam, Alan C. York and...

Plasmodesmata

Plasmodesmata

In a simple way, plasmodesmata are plasma membrane channels that pass through the cell wall, which not only allow for communication between plant cells, but also facilitate direct intercellular translocation of ions, photosynthates, growth regulators, and macromolecules of xenobiotics with similar characteristics (Robards, 1976). They provide a direct cytoplasmic connection between neighboring cells through cell walls. The properties of these communication channels are a factor in the...

Relevance of bioinformatic tools Molecular docking binding energy calculation and molecular dynamics

In silico studies of macromolecular systems are becoming increasingly useful and reliable with the improvement of our knowledge of their physico-chemical properties and with the availability of more powerful hardware resources. Nowadays, structural bioinformatics tools coupled to modern molecular biological techniques allow the tailoring of macromolecules as high affinity receptors for organic compounds of biomedical environmental industrial relevance to be used as biosensing devices for these...

Herbicides Theory And Applications

Edited by Sonia Soloneski and Marcelo L. Larramendy Edited by Sonia Soloneski and Marcelo L. Larramendy Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia All chapters are Open Access articles distributed under the Creative Commons Non Commercial Share Alike Attribution 3.0 license, which permits to copy, distribute, transmit, and adapt the work in any medium, so long as the original work is properly cited. After this work has been published by InTech, authors have the right to republish it, in whole or...

Trifluralin and Pendimethalin

The dinitroaniline herbicides, such as trifluralin and pendimethalin, are used to reduce weed populations and aid in the establishment and production of many crops including groundnut, soybean, and grain sorghum (Dotray et al., 2004 Grichar & Colburn, 1993 Grichar et al., 2005a, b Grichar, 2006). The dinitroaniline herbicides provide excellent control of annual grasses (Buchanan et al., 1982 Chamblee et al., 1982 Wilcut et al., 1995) and are the only soil-applied herbicides registered for...

Biosensors already developed

Although a variety of whole-cell-based bacterial sensors have been applied in environmental assays for pollutant monitoring, generally they display a poor response to herbicides Table 3 . If the electron transfer from the reaction centre to the quinone pool is blocked, such as during the binding of the photosynthetically active pesticides, these parameters change dramatically and can be monitored by electro-optical analysis in a pesticide concentration dependent manner Figure 6 . In this...

What is cyanazine

Boom Sprayer Diagram

Cyanazine is a synthetic chemical that is widely used as a pre-emergence herbicide to control broad-leaf weeds and grasses in agricultural crops. This chemical is in the s-triazine family of herbicides. Some common trade names for cyanazine include Bladex and Fortrol. Cyanazine is also available commercially premixed with another s-triazine, atrazine. Cyanazine was first registered for use as an herbicide by Shell Chemical Company in 1971. In the U.S., over 90 of its use in agriculture is to...