Introduction

Management strategies to protect peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from pest damage require multiple applications of fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides. Additionally, micronutrients and plant growth regulators are often applied to improve nutrient balance and to manage peanut growth and development. Over fifty active ingredients can be used to manage pests in peanut, often with more than one formulated product commercially available. Timing of application of pesticides, micronutrients, and plant growth regulators often coincide during the growing season, and co-application of these agrochemicals is desirable if pesticide, micronutrient, and plant growth regulator performance and peanut tolerance are not compromised. In addition to potential interactions related to physiological effects on plants and other organisms, application variables such as commercial formulation, adjuvant, water quality, and environmental stress can affect agrochemical compatibility.

Physical compatibility, in particular formation of precipitates in spray tanks and equipment, is a concern for farmers when co-applying agrochemicals. Defining potential interactions among these agrochemicals is important in developing appropriate weed management programs and implementing integrated pest management strategies for peanut. Considerable research has been conducted during the last four decades to define interactions among agrochemicals (Barrett, 1993; Green, 1989; Green and Bailey, 1987; Hatzios and Penner, 1985; Putnam and Penner, 1974). Most of these reviews are focused on interactions of herbicides in mixture with other herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, nematicides, and adjuvants, in general, but not for a particular crop. Some of these reviews summarized the mechanisms responsible for the interactions of herbicides with other agrochemicals and the statistical methodology for characterization of agrochemical combinations (Barrett, 1993; Green, 1989; Hatzios and Penner, 1985; Jianhua et al., 1995). Since these reviews were published, many of new agrochemicals have received registration for different crops and for other uses. Defining interactions of these new agrochemicals is important when developing pest management strategies for a cropping system. This chapter reviews some of the interactions discussed in the earlier work, but also elucidates the interactions and/or compatibility of herbicides with other agrochemicals used in peanut production systems.

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